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Encapsulation in Java

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  • Difficulty Level : Easy
  • Last Updated : 03 Jun, 2022
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Encapsulation is defined as the wrapping up of data under a single unit. It is the mechanism that binds together code and the data it manipulates. Another way to think about encapsulation is, that it is a protective shield that prevents the data from being accessed by the code outside this shield. 

  • Technically in encapsulation, the variables or data of a class is hidden from any other class and can be accessed only through any member function of its own class in which it is declared.
  • As in encapsulation, the data in a class is hidden from other classes using the data hiding concept which is achieved by making the members or methods of a class private, and the class is exposed to the end-user or the world without providing any details behind implementation using the abstraction concept, so it is also known as a combination of data-hiding and abstraction.
  • Encapsulation can be achieved by Declaring all the variables in the class as private and writing public methods in the class to set and get the values of variables.
  • It is more defined with the setter and getter method.

Advantages of Encapsulation:  

  • Data Hiding: it is a way of restricting the access of our data members by hiding the implementation details. Encapsulation also provides a way for data hiding. The user will have no idea about the inner implementation of the class. It will not be visible to the user how the class is storing values in the variables. The user will only know that we are passing the values to a setter method and variables are getting initialized with that value.
  • Increased Flexibility: We can make the variables of the class read-only or write-only depending on our requirement. If we wish to make the variables read-only then we have to omit the setter methods like setName(), setAge(), etc. from the above program or if we wish to make the variables write-only then we have to omit the get methods like getName(), getAge(), etc. from the above program
  • Reusability: Encapsulation also improves the re-usability and is easy to change with new requirements.
  • Testing code is easy: Encapsulated code is easy to test for unit testing.



// fields to calculate area
class Area {
  int length;
  int breadth;
  // constructor to initialize values
  Area(int length, int breadth) {
    this.length = length;
    this.breadth = breadth;
  // method to calculate area
  public void getArea() {
    int area = length * breadth;
    System.out.println("Area: " + area);
class Main {
  public static void main(String[] args) {
    Area rectangle = new Area(2, 16);


Area: 32

The program to access variables of the class EncapsulateDemo is shown below:  


// Java program to demonstrate encapsulation
class Encapsulate {
    // private variables declared
    // these can only be accessed by
    // public methods of class
    private String geekName;
    private int geekRoll;
    private int geekAge;
    // get method for age to access
    // private variable geekAge
    public int getAge() { return geekAge; }
    // get method for name to access
    // private variable geekName
    public String getName() { return geekName; }
    // get method for roll to access
    // private variable geekRoll
    public int getRoll() { return geekRoll; }
    // set method for age to access
    // private variable geekage
    public void setAge(int newAge) { geekAge = newAge; }
    // set method for name to access
    // private variable geekName
    public void setName(String newName)
        geekName = newName;
    // set method for roll to access
    // private variable geekRoll
    public void setRoll(int newRoll) { geekRoll = newRoll; }
public class TestEncapsulation {
    public static void main(String[] args)
        Encapsulate obj = new Encapsulate();
        // setting values of the variables
        // Displaying values of the variables
        System.out.println("Geek's name: " + obj.getName());
        System.out.println("Geek's age: " + obj.getAge());
        System.out.println("Geek's roll: " + obj.getRoll());
        // Direct access of geekRoll is not possible
        // due to encapsulation
        // System.out.println("Geek's roll: " +
        // obj.geekName);

In the above program, the class Encapsulate is encapsulated as the variables are declared as private. The get methods like getAge() , getName() , getRoll() are set as public, these methods are used to access these variables. The setter methods like setName(), setAge(), setRoll() are also declared as public and are used to set the values of the variables.


Geek's name: Harsh
Geek's age: 19
Geek's roll: 51


class Name {
    private int age; // Private is using to hide the data
    public int getAge() { return age; } // getter
    public void setAge(int age)
        this.age = age;
    } // setter
class GFG {
    public static void main(String[] args)
        Name n1 = new Name();
        System.out.println("The age of the person is: "
                           + n1.getAge());


The age of the person is: 19


class Account { 
//private data members to hide the data
private long acc_no; 
private String name,email; 
private float amount; 
//public getter and setter methods 
public long getAcc_no() { 
    return acc_no; 
public void setAcc_no(long acc_no) { 
    this.acc_no = acc_no; 
public String getName() { 
    return name; 
public void setName(String name) { = name; 
public String getEmail() { 
    return email; 
public void setEmail(String email) { = email; 
public float getAmount() { 
    return amount; 
public void setAmount(float amount) { 
    this.amount = amount; 
public class GFG { 
public static void main(String[] args) { 
    //creating instance of Account class 
    Account acc=new Account(); 
    //setting values through setter methods 
    acc.setName("MD FAIZ"); 
    //getting values through getter methods 
    System.out.println(acc.getAcc_no()+" "+acc.getName()+" "+acc.getEmail()+" "+acc.getAmount()); 


7310805450 MD FAIZ 100000.0

This article is contributed by Harsh Agarwal. If you like GeeksforGeeks and would like to contribute, you can also write an article using or mail your article to See your article appearing on the GeeksforGeeks main page and help other Geeks.

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