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Components of Ecosystem

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The ecosystem is derived from the Greek word ‘Oikos’ which means home and ‘systema’ means system i.e a limited space in which living beings interact or collaborate with each other and environmental factors like water, temperature, humidity, etc., and dependencies on these factors to survive. An ecosystem can be of various types depending on its size. For example

  • It can be small which is called a micro-ecosystem eg. Pond.
  • It can be of medium size ecosystem eg. A forest.
  • It can be of large size known as biome eg. A tropical rainforest.

Components of the Ecosystem

The ecosystem is made of 2 factors i.e., biotic and abiotic components. Biotic components are the factors that are living factors that affect the ecosystem. Abiotic factors are those factors that are nonliving and affect the environment and ecosystem. Both components maintain an equilibrium in the ecosystem.



Abiotic Components

It consists of non-living or physical components like water, light, temperature, humidity, soil, nutrients, etc. which affect living beings in terms of growth, development, maintenance, and reproduction. These are also known as ecological factors. These factors affect the life of species in all forms of environmental conditions such as in water or on land. Abiotic components change from one ecosystem to another. There are three types of abiotic components:

Edaphic Factors

Edaphic means floor or ground surface. This factor basically includes soil and substratum. The texture of the soil, its nutrient composition, and its density tell about the type of species or trees that will grow there.

Topographic Factors

This includes surface exposure altitude, slope, etc. Human activities lead to modification in these components. They have an impact on various biotic and abiotic factors. Such as farming, mining, and forest cutting.

Climate Factors

These factors are based on the atmosphere and include light, temperature, humidity, and wind. The speed of the wind and its direction influence the humidity of an area. Similarly, the temperature of the lives of many species for eg. Some species require a particular temperature to survive.

Effects of Abiotic Factors on Organism

An organism has many ways in which it responds to abiotic factors.

  • Decomposers: Many organisms can regulate their body temperature along with the environment but some organisms lack this ability so they have varying body conditions as per the new environment. Such organisms are called conformers.
  • Regulators: These are those organisms that maintain their body conditions irrespective of the environment. For eg., Humans maintain their body temperature at 37°C in both summer and winter.
  • Migrate: There are many organisms that can not able to maintain their body conditions according to their respective environment. Such organisms in order to survive migrate to a region that suits their body conditions. For eg., the Siberian crane migrates to India when the conditions are not supportive of its survival.
  • Diapause: It is a natural eruption in the development of some animals by the decrease of metabolic activity. Mostly found in insects, mites, a few crabs, and snails.
  • Suspend: When the condition is not according to the organisms instead of migrating they enter a stage of suspension where their growth and development are suspended for a particular period of time. For eg., Bears went into hibernation in winter.

Biotic Components 

Biotic means are related to living. It contains all living components such as fungi, bacteria, animals, plants, etc. As they use energy for their survival so on the basis of energy requirements they are divided into three parts:


Producers basically include trees that fulfill the requirements of other organisms for food and oxygen. Through photosynthesis, they gain the energy required by them under the presence of chlorophyll and sunlight.


It includes carnivores, herbivores and omnivores. Carnivores depend on flesh for their food requirements.  Herbivores eat plants and get energy from them.  Omnivores eat both plants and flesh. Consumers help in maintaining the balance in the ecosystem by following the food chain.


These are also called saprophytes. These are the organisms that feed on dead and decay and convert them into organic compounds. They are important for the nutrient content in the soil. With more will be nutrients more species and trees can able to grow.

FAQs on Ecosystem and its Components

Q1: What is an Ecosystem?


Ecosyem is the area where both the biotic and abiotic components interact to live.

Q2: What are the Components of an Ecosystem?


Ecosystem have 2 components on the basis of they are living or non-living. These components are:

  1. Biotic Components: All living organism in the ecosystem eg. bacteria, plant, animals etc.
  2. Abiotic Components: All abiotic factors which include soil, temperature, ph etc.

Q3: What are the different types of an ecosystem?


Ecosystem are divided into 2 different ecosystem:

  1. Teerestial Ecosystem
  2. Aquatic Ecosystem

On the basis of ecosystem is made with aid or without aid:

  1. Natural Ecosystem
  2. Artificial Ecosystem

Q4: What are the functions of an ecosystem?


The main function of an ecosystem are:

  1. Productivity
  2. Nutrient cycling
  3. Decomposition
  4. Water dynamics
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Last Updated : 24 Mar, 2023
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