Economic Activities by Men and Women
By people as a resource, we mean people who form part of the workforce and play a significant role in economic growth by contributing to the productive resources of the country. So, along with various other resources, a country also needs people who can make good use of these resources and increase production. Investments in human resources are made through training and educating them and taking their health care, making humans more productive and therefore more beneficial to the economy of a country.
Economic and non-economic activities
An activity that is done for the purpose of selling either a good or service is called economic activity. For example, any kind of profession, business, or employment can be defined as an economic activity. People join these activities for earning money.
Non-economic activities include everything which a person does apart from economic activities. Any time you spend dealing with family or friends in any way can be classified as a non-economic activity. Religious activities such as worship are also included in this category. Activities that are not done for earning money are referred to as non-economic activities.
Economic activities are generally classified as
- Primary Sector (Agriculture Sector): The primary sector of the economy extracts or harvests products from the earth. Activities associated with the primary sector include agriculture mining, forestry, farming, grazing, hunting and gathering, fishing, quarrying, etc.
- Secondary Sector (Manufacturing Sector): Secondary Sector is the manufacturing & construction sectors of the economy. It turns raw materials into finished products. This sector manufactures goods for customers. Activities associated with the secondary sector include metal working, automobile production, textile production, chemical and engineering industries, energy utilities, engineering, breweries and bottlers, construction, shipbuilding, etc.
- Tertiary Sector (Service Sector): All service providers fall under the tertiary sector. Activities associated with this sector include retail and wholesale, transportation and distribution, entertainment restaurants, clerical services, media, tourism, insurance, banking, healthcare, law, insurance, etc.
Market and Non-Market Activities
Economic activities can also be classified according to production goals means why we are producing something. They can therefore be divided into the market and non-market activities.
When a producer produces something to sell in the market, it is called market activities. A farmer producing grains or a producer producing certain goods for selling in the market for money are examples of market activities. Non-market activities are those products or services that are not produced for sale in the market but are for our own consumption. Cooking food for ourselves is an example of non-market products that are produced only for self-consumption and not for sale.
For generations, male and female tasks have been divided between them. Traditionally, men are seen as a person who goes out, do work, and bring home money to run the house, while women are seen as a person whose only work is to take care of children, and families and do household work. While men’s work is as economic, women’s tasks are often classified as non-economic. Men were paid for their services, but women were not paid for their services. The four basic economic activities by men are resource management, production of goods and services, distribution of goods and services, and consumption of goods and services.
Up to half of the world’s work is unpaid and most of it is done by women. This imbalance not only robs women of economic opportunity. It is also costly to society in terms of lower productivity and less economic growth. It follows that a fairer distribution of unpaid work would not only benefit women but also lead to a more efficient workforce and stronger economies. Examples of unpaid work include cooking, cleaning, bringing food or water, and caring for children and the elderly. These tasks are not counted as part of economic activity because they are difficult to measure based on market values.
Unpaid work declines as economic development increases, mainly because there is less time spent on housework. Social institutions and values may limit the redistribution of unpaid work by preventing men from sharing the burden at home. It’s no secret that women disproportionately bear the burden of unpaid work. Worldwide, women do an average of 4.4 hours of unpaid work and men only 1.7 hours.
The economy misallocates resources by not fully engaging women and leaving women to do low-productivity tasks at home instead of reaching their full potential in the marketplace. There is also a lack of use of complementarity between women and men in the workplace. The result is lower productivity and economic growth. This gender gap in unpaid work is not only unfair, but it is clearly ineffective. Too often, women end up shouldering housework due to constraints imposed by cultural norms, lack of public services and infrastructure, or the absence of family-friendly policies. Women may also choose to stay at home or work only part-time if the market wage is too low and does not represent equal pay for equal work. Governments must ensure women have access to education and health care. Without proper human capital, women’s opportunities in the labor market are very limited.
Education played an important role for individuals to take better advantage of economic opportunities. But now with changing times women also have started working outside their houses for earning money. The following shows how economic activities are affected by educated and uneducated women.
Uneducated and Unskilled Women
- They get irregular and low income for their work.
- They work with no basic facilities like maternity leave, childcare, and other social security systems.
- They do not have any legal protection for their work.
- Women working on a farm or as laborers are examples.
Educated and Skilled Women
- Women with high education and skills are paid equally as men will be paid for that work.
- They work in the organized sector with job security.
- They also work that needs high levels of scientific and technological knowledge.
- They contribute to economic activities and can make better use.
- Women working in a multinational company, a hospital, etc. are examples.
FAQs on Economic Activities
Question 1: Why are women employed in low-paid work?
Most women in the country are less educated than men, so they work primarily as unskilled labor. They mainly work in the unorganized sector and also they don’t know about their rights and the minimum wage. They are believed to be physically inferior to men and therefore are believed to do less work and therefore are paid less.
Question 2: What are the economic benefits of feminism?
Overall, the results of the study show that greater gender equality would lead to a large increase in jobs for both women and men. In 2050, up to 10.5 million additional jobs would be created through improvements in gender equality, with about 70% of these jobs filled by women.
Question 3: What is the role of gender in the economy?
Gender norms can limit women’s economic opportunities by limiting their access to information and networks, jobs, and property. Gender norms also justify gender occupational segregation, which often relegates women to jobs that are considered less valuable and therefore pay lower wages.
Question 4: Why is women’s empowerment important for economic development?
When women have the right skills and opportunities, they can help businesses and markets grow. Women who are more economically capable contribute more to their families, societies and national economies. Women have been shown to invest additional income in their children, which is a path to sustainable development.
Question 5: How does women’s education affect the economy?
After accounting for cross-country differences in GDP (or GDP per capita), countries with higher levels of female education experience faster economic growth, longer life expectancy, lower population growth, and better quality of life.
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