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Disaster Management – Definition, Types, Need, Organizations

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  • Last Updated : 29 Jun, 2022

A disaster is characterized as a disturbance of enormous scope, either regular or man-made, happening in short or extensive stretches. Disasters can prompt human, material, monetary or ecological difficulties, which can be much higher than the tolerable limit of the impacted society.

Disaster Management is an incorporated course of planning, sorting out, organizing, and carrying out measures that are essential for risk reduction during disasters and to face the consequences well prepared. Disaster management ensures rescue and relief.

Need for disaster management

As per experiences, taking India into account, India is frail against 30 exceptional types of disasters that will impact the monetary, social, and human improvement potential such a lot that it will definitively influence the effectiveness and huge scope of financial execution. This widespread chaos and obliteration lead to the requirement for Disaster Management.

Types of disasters

Disasters are classified into two types, namely:

  1. Natural disasters
  2. Man-made disasters

Natural Disasters

Natural disasters are physical peculiarities caused either by quick or slow beginning occasions that promptly affect human wellbeing and auxiliary effects bringing on additional demise and languishing. Natural disasters are further classified into 5 types.

  • Geophysical natural disasters: Naturally occurring disasters like a volcanic eruption, tsunamis,  earthquakes, and landslides are some of the major forms of geophysical natural disasters.
  • Hydrological natural disasters: Naturally occurring disasters like avalanches and floods are the major forms of hydrological natural disasters.
  • Climatological natural disasters: Naturally occurring disasters like extreme temperatures, forest fires, and global warming are some of the major forms of climatological disasters.
  • Meteorological natural disasters: Naturally occurring disasters like cyclones and storms are the major forms of meteorological disasters.
  • Biological natural disasters: Naturally occurring disasters like disease epidemics and plagues are the major forms of biological disasters.

Manmade Disasters

Manmade Disasters are the events that are brought about by human beings which happen in or near human settlements frequently caused as a consequence of Environmental or Technological Emergencies. Manmade disasters are further classified into three types.

  • Gas leakages: Gas spills are quite possibly the riskiest man-made disaster on the planet. They can straightforwardly carry unfortunate results to human well-being and the climate. Gas breaks can likewise spread rapidly without notice. It might cause a huge blast and claim human lives.
  • Oil spillages: Oil spills adversely affect marine creatures. Since the majority of the oil floats in water, the daylight engrossing limit of the water diminishes. Oil spills are serious natural contamination. A ton of poisons are flushed into the air and soil.
  • Nuclear explosions: Nuclear explosions cause serious damage to the atmosphere and soil and also have a long-lasting impact on the health of the inhabitants.

Disaster Management Organizations 

  • National executive committee(NEC): NEC readies the National Plan for Disaster Management according to the National Policy on Disaster Management.
  • State Disaster Management Authority (SDMA): It is the state disaster management organization that deals with wit-disaster er planning. The chief minister of the state is the head of the state disaster management authority.
  • District Disaster Management Authority (DDMA): It is the district disaster management organization that deals with disaster planning. The Collector or deputy commissioner of the district is the head of the state disaster management authority.

Sample Questions

Question 1: What are the measures to be taken while experiencing an earthquake as per disaster management norms?

Answer:

  • Always have a disaster kit that includes a first aid box in your home.
  • Stay away from tracks that contain breakable items like glasses and windows.
  • If you are out of home, stay away from trees, electric poles, and high-rise towers.
  • Sit in a place that is least prone to vibrations.

Question 2: Explain in detail biological disasters?

Answer:

The obliterating impacts brought about by a colossal spread of a particular sort of living organism that might spread infection, viruses, or an invasion of plant, creature, or bug on a pestilence or pandemic level. The recent COVID 19 pandemic is an example of a biological natural disaster.

Question 3: How can we avoid manmade disasters?

Answer:

  • Constructing risky industries and factories away from cities and towns.
  •  Reduce, Reuse, Recycle!
  • Use oil skimmer boats immediately to clean oil spills.
  • Vacate people immediately from affected areas and shift to a safe place and ensure doctor consultation.
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