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Differentiate between Direct and Indirect Use of Biodiversity

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  • Last Updated : 03 Aug, 2022
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Biodiversity is the diversity of living things from a variety of sources, including terrestrial, marine, and desert ecosystems as well as the ecological complexes to which they belong. This is the most complex and important feature of our planet. Life cannot be sustained without biodiversity.

The term “biodiversity” was coined in 1985. It is important for both natural and man-made ecosystems. It represents diversity among plant, animal, and microbial species. Biodiversity includes the number and relative abundance of various organisms in an ecosystem. It also reflects the organization of the organism at different levels. Biodiversity is ecologically and economically important. It provides us with food, shelter, fuel, clothing, and other resources. They also earn money from tourism. Therefore, having the right knowledge of biodiversity is very important to ensure sustainable livelihoods.

Direct Use Of Biodiversity

Direct value is the benefit derived from the goods provided by biodiversity. Examples of this direct value include food, wood, firewood, medicines, linen, and wool. These commodities can be used by people for their own consumption needs as well as generate income through trade and research.

Direct value is the benefit derived from the goods provided by biodiversity. Examples of this direct value include food, wood, firewood, medicines, linen, and wool. These commodities can be used by people for their own consumption needs as well as generate income through trade and research.

Consumptive Use Value

Many natural foods are consumed locally by people. However, we do not sell or buy these products. These products do not directly contribute to the national economy. The cost of these products is called the value in use of biodiversity. This is the direct use value of being able to directly collect and consume biodiversity products. Fuel, food, medicine, textile, etc.

  • Food: A large number of wild plants are consumed by humans for food. About 80,000 species of edible plants are reported to be found in the wild. About 90% of modern food crops have been domesticated from wild tropical plants.
  • Drugs and medicines: About 75% of the world’s population relies on plant or herbal extracts to make medicine. The miracle drug penicillin used as an antibiotic is derived from the fungus Penicillium. Similarly, we get tetracycline from bacteria. Quinine, an antimalarial drug, is extracted from the bark of the chinchona tree, and digitalin is derived from digitalis (digitalis), which is effective against heart disease. Recently, two anticancer drugs, vinblastine, and vincristine were obtained from periwinkle (catarrin) plants, which contain anticancer alkaloids. It is hypothesized that a large number of marine animals have anticancer properties that have not yet been systematically investigated.
  • Fuel: Our forests have been used as firewood since ancient times. Fossil fuels such as coal, oil, and natural gas are also products of fossil biodiversity. Privately harvested firewood is generally not sold and is consumed directly by tribes and locals, so it is worth using.

Productive use Value

This is the commercially viable value to which the product is sold and marketed. This can include a variety of wild genetic resources that scientists can sell to confer desirable traits on crops and livestock.

These may include animal products such as elephant tusks, musk deer musk, silkworm silk, wool, many animal firs, lacquer insects, etc., all of which are sold in the market. Many industries depend on the value of productive use of biodiversity. Paper industry, plywood industry, railway sleeper industry, silk industry, textile industry, ivory industry, leather industry, pearl industry, etc.

Indirect Use Of Biodiversity

Indirect value is a benefit that is consistent with services derived from biodiversity and of great value to society as a whole, not individuals or businesses. Examples of indirect value include services such as pollination by bees, maintenance of water and oxygen circulation by plants, decomposition of dead matter by bacteria and fungi, worship of various flora and fauna, sacred forests, and the aesthetic beauty of flora and fauna.

Indirect value is a benefit that is consistent with services derived from biodiversity and of great value to society as a whole, not individuals or businesses. Examples of indirect value include services such as pollination by bees, maintenance of water and oxygen circulation by plants, decomposition of dead matter by bacteria and fungi, worship of various flora and fauna, sacred forests, and the aesthetic beauty of flora and fauna.

Social Value

These are values ​​related to people’s social life, customs, religion, and psycho-spiritual aspects. In our country, many plants are considered sacred and sacred, such as Tulasi (holy basil), papal, mango, lotus, bael, etc. The leaves, fruits, or flowers of these plants are used for worship. Thus, social life, singing, dancing, and customs are closely linked with wildlife. Many animals such as cows, snakes, bulls, peacocks, owls, and more. It is also particularly important because it occupies an important place in our psycho-spiritual realm. Therefore, biodiversity has special social values ​​associated with other societies.

Ethical Value

This is due to ethical issues such as “all living things must be preserved”. It is based on the concept of “Live and let live”. All biodiversity must be protected because biodiversity is precious for our human beings to survive. Ethical values ​​mean that we may or may not use a species, but the very fact that that species exists in nature gives us pleasure. When we learn that ‘passenger pigeons’ or ‘dodos’ are no longer on this earth, we all feel sad. We do not directly derive from kangaroos, zebras, or giraffes, but we firmly believe that these species should exist in nature. This means that every species has an inherent ethical or existential value.

Aesthetic Value

Biodiversity has great aesthetic value. None of us would like to visit a vast wasteland that is devoid of any sign of life. People all over the world invest a lot of time and money to visit wildlife where they can enjoy the aesthetic value of biodiversity, and this type of tourism is now known as ecotourism. Such ecotourism’s “willing to pay” concept even provides a monetary value for the aesthetic value of biodiversity. Ecotourism is estimated to generate revenues of $12 billion annually, roughly equivalent to the aesthetic value of biodiversity.

Ecosystem Service Value

Recently, the unused value associated with the self-maintenance of the ecosystem and various important ecosystem services has been recognized. This refers to the services provided by ecosystems such as preventing soil erosion, preventing flooding, maintaining soil fertility, nutrient cycling, nitrogen fixation, water cycle, serving as a carbon sink, absorbing pollutants, and reducing the threat of global warming.

Sample Questions

Question 1: What is the value of using biodiversity directly?

Answer:

Direct value is the benefit derived from the products provided by biodiversity. Examples of this direct value include food, wood, firewood, medicines, linen, and wool. These commodities can be used by people for their own consumption needs as well as generate income through trade and research.

Question 2: What factors related to human activity threaten biodiversity?

Answer:

Populations need resources to survive and grow, and these resources are being removed from the environment in an unsustainable way. The three biggest immediate threats to biodiversity are habitat loss, overfishing, and the introduction of exotic species.

Question 3: How does biodiversity loss affect communities?

Answer:

A decrease in biodiversity reduces ecosystem productivity (the amount of food energy converted to biomass) and reduces the quality of ecosystem services (often including maintaining soil, purifying water through soil, providing food and shade, etc.).

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