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Different forms of data representation in today’s world

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  • Difficulty Level : Basic
  • Last Updated : 14 Sep, 2021
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Overview :
Data is can be anything which represents the specific result or any number, text, image, audio, video etc. For example, If you will take an example of human being then data for a human being such that name, personal id, country, profession, bank account details etc. are the important data. Data can be divide into three categories such that data can be personal, public and private. 

Forms of data representation : 
At present Information comes in different forms such as follows.

  1. Numbers
  2. Text
  3. Images
  4. Audio
  5. Video

Let’s discuss it one by one.

  1. Numbers – 
    Numbers are not represented as ASCII but by bit patterns. Numbers are directly converted into binary representation to specify mathematical operations. The 0s and 1s used to represent digital data. The number system that humans normally use is in base 10.
    Number File Formats –
    Integer, Fixed point, Date, Boolean, Decimal, etc.

    Example : 
    You may have encountered different ways of expressing numbers using “expanded form”. For example, if you want to write the number 60338 in expanded form you might have written it as 60338=60000+300+30+8.
     

  2. Text – 
    Text is also represented as bit pattern or sequence of bits(such as 0001111). Various types of bits are assigned to represent text symbols. A code where each number represents a character can be used to convert text into binary.  
    Text File Formats –
    .doc,.docx, .pdf, .rtf, .txt, etc.  

    Example : 
    The letter ‘a’ has the binary number 0110 0001.
     

  3. Audio – 
    Audio signal is a representation of sound or music. Audio differs from all i.e. from text, number and images. Audio is a series of binary numbers for digital signals. It is continuous but not discrete.
    Audio File Formats –
    MP3, M4A audio file type, FLAC, WAV, WMA, AAC, etc.
     
  4. Video – 
    Video refers to the recording, broadcasting, copying or playback. Video can either be produced or it is continuous and sometimes it is a combination of multiple images produced in motion.
    Video File Formats –
    MP4, MOV, AVI, FLV, etc.
     
  5. Images – 
    Images are also represented as bit patterns. An image is composed of matrix of pixels with different values of pixels each where each pixel is represented as dots. Size of the picture is dependent on its resolution. Consider a simple black and white image. If 1 is black (or on) and 0 is white (or off), then a simple black and white picture can be created using binary.
    Image File Formats – 
    Image can be in the format of jpeg, PNG, TIFF, GIF, etc.
Image Data Representation -
one bit per pixel (0 or 1) - two possible colors
two bits per pixel (00 to 11) - four possible colors
three bits per pixel (000 to 111) - eight possible colors
four bits per pixel (0000 to 1111) - 16 possible colors

Example : 
An image of height 100, width 300, color depth 16 bits
100 × 300 = 30,000
30,000 × 16 = 4,80,000 bits
4,80,000 bits ÷ 8 = 60,000 bytes
60,000 ÷ 1000 = 60 kilobytes
Result : 60KB
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