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Differences between Procedural and Object Oriented Programming

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  • Difficulty Level : Basic
  • Last Updated : 28 Jun, 2022

This article focuses on discussing the differences between procedural and object-oriented programming.

Procedural Programming

Procedural Programming can be defined as a programming model which is derived from structured programming, based upon the concept of calling procedure. Procedures, also known as routines, subroutines or functions, simply consist of a series of computational steps to be carried out. During a program’s execution, any given procedure might be called at any point, including by other procedures or itself. 

Languages used in Procedural Programming: 

FORTRAN, ALGOL, COBOL, 

BASIC, Pascal and C. 

Object-Oriented Programming

Object-oriented programming can be defined as a programming model which is based upon the concept of objects. Objects contain data in the form of attributes and code in the form of methods. In object-oriented programming, computer programs are designed using the concept of objects that interact with the real world. Object-oriented programming languages are various but the most popular ones are class-based, meaning that objects are instances of classes, which also determine their types. 

Languages used in Object-Oriented Programming: 

Java, C++, C#, Python, 

PHP, JavaScript, Ruby, Perl, 

Objective-C, Dart, Swift, Scala. 

Procedural Programming vs Object-Oriented Programming

Below are some of the differences between procedural and object-oriented programming: 

Procedural Oriented Programming Object-Oriented Programming
In procedural programming, the program is divided into small parts called functions. In object-oriented programming, the program is divided into small parts called objects.
Procedural programming follows a top-down approach. Object-oriented programming follows a bottom-up approach.
There is no access specifier in procedural programming. Object-oriented programming has access specifiers like private, public, protected, etc.
Adding new data and functions is not easy. Adding new data and function is easy.
Procedural programming does not have any proper way of hiding data so it is less secure. Object-oriented programming provides data hiding so it is more secure.
In procedural programming, overloading is not possible. Overloading is possible in object-oriented programming.
In procedural programming, there is no concept of data hiding and inheritance. In object-oriented programming, the concept of data hiding and inheritance is used.
In procedural programming, the function is more important than the data. In object-oriented programming, data is more important than function.
Procedural programming is based on the unreal world. Object-oriented programming is based on the real world.
Procedural programming is used for designing medium-sized programs. Object-oriented programming is used for designing large and complex programs.
Procedural programming uses the concept of procedure abstraction. Object-oriented programming uses the concept of data abstraction.
Code reusability absent in procedural programming, Code reusability present in object-oriented programming.
Examples: C, FORTRAN, Pascal, Basic, etc. Examples: C++, Java, Python, C#, etc.

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