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Difference between Dicot and Monocot Root

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  • Last Updated : 16 Aug, 2022
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Flowering plants are also called angiosperms. The anatomy of flowering plants includes the organization of cells and tissues within the bodies of flowering plants. Plants are eukaryotic life forms that are portrayed by their capacity to deliver their own food. They give oxygen, food, and medication to other living creatures. The parts of a flowering plant include roots and shoots. These two frameworks are associated with vascular tissue that runs from the root through the shoot. The underground root growth empowers plants to acquire water and supplements from the dirt. The shoot framework permits plants to duplicate and get food through photosynthesis.

The angiosperms are additionally partitioned into monocotyledon and dicotyledon. Monocots vary from dicots in four particular primary highlights: leaves, stems, roots, and flowers. Plants whose seeds contain 1 cotyledon are called Monocots whereas plants whose seeds contain 2 cotyledons are dicots.

Dicotyledonous Root

The internal structure of the dicot root shows the zones mentioned below:

Dicot Root

 

Epidermis

The epidermis has thin-walled, living cells with no intercellular spaces, known as Epiblema. Cells of epiblema protrude out in the form of epidermal root hairs.

Cortex

The cortex has several layers of thin-walled parenchymal cells. The cortex consists of 3 parts:

  • Exodermis: It is composed of 2 to 3 rows of thick-walled suberized cells. It prevents the exit of water from cortical layers.
  • General cortex: It is composed of several layers of thin-walled, living, parenchymal cells. It helps in food storage and water conduction.
  • Endodermis: It is the innermost layer of the cortex. It comprises a single layer of barrel-shaped cells without intercellular spaces.
    • Radial, as well as tangential walls of endodermal cells, have a deposition of water-impermeable waxy material suberin in the form of Casparian strips.
    • Endodermis forms a watertight jacket around vascular tissue, so also called an internal biological barrier.
    • Some endodermis cells near the protoxylem have no Casparian strips, called passage cells or transfusion cells. They allow radial diffusion of water and minerals through the endodermis.

Stele

All tissues on the inner side of the endodermis such as the pericycle, vascular bundle, and pith.

Pericycle

A few layers of thick-walled parenchymatous cells next to endodermis. It shows active cell division. Initiation of lateral roots and vascular cambium during secondary growth takes place in the pericycle.

Vascular Bundles

Radial vascular bundle (Xylem and phloem). Endarch xylem (xylem is on the inner side). Usually, tetrarch means 4 xylem and phloem patches.

Pith

Pith is small or may be completely absent. The parenchymatous cells which lie between the xylem and phloem cells are called conjunctive tissue.

Monocotyledonous Root

Monocot Root

 

The internal structure of the Monocot root shows the zones mentioned below:

Epidermis

The epidermis has thin-walled, living cells with no intercellular spaces, known as Epiblema. Cells of epiblema protrude out in the form of epidermal root hairs.

Cortex

The cortex has several layers of thin-walled parenchyma cells. The cortex consists of 3 parts.

  • Exodermis: It is composed of 2 to 3 rows of thick-walled suberized cells. It prevents the exit of water from cortical layers.
  • General cortex: It is composed of several layers of thin-walled, living, parenchyma cells. It helps in food storage and water conduction.
  • Endodermis: It is the innermost layer of the cortex. It comprises a single layer of barrel-shaped cells without intercellular spaces.
    • Radial, as well as tangential walls of endodermal cells, have a deposition of water-impermeable waxy material suberin in the form of Casparian strips.
    • Endodermis forms a watertight jacket around vascular tissue, so also called an internal biological barrier.
    • Some endodermal cells near the protoxylem have no Casparian strips, called passage cells or transfusion cells. They allow radial diffusion of water and minerals through the endodermis.

Stele

All tissues on the inner side of the endodermis such as the pericycle, vascular bundle, and pith.

Pericycle

It is made from thin-walled parenchymatous cells and is the outermost layer of the stellar system. Monocot roots do not undergo secondary growth. Hence, the pericycle only gives out lateral roots.

Vascular bundles

Radial vascular bundle (Xylem and phloem), Exarch xylem (protoxylem towards periphery metaxylem towards the center). Usually, polyarch means more than 6 xylem and phloem patches.

Pith

It is an enormous, well-developed piece of the monocot root and comprises thin-walled parenchymatous tissue. It contains high measures of starch grains. The parenchymatous cells which lie between xylem and phloem cells are called conjunctive tissue.

Frequently Asked Questions

Question 1: What are the differences between Monocot and Dicot roots?

Answer:

Features

Monocot roots

Dicot roots

Xylem Polyarch Usually tetrarch
Pith Large at the center Pith is usually absent
Metaxylem Metaxylem vessels are generally circular in cross section Metaxylem vessels are generally polygonal in cross section
Conjunctive tissue It is sclerenchymatous in maize It is usually parenchymatous
Secondary growth There is no secondary growth Secondary growth is present
Shape of xylem Round or oval shape. Angular or polygonal shape.
Vascular tissues More number of xylem and phloem Less number of xylem and phloem
Cortex area Wide cortex area Narrow cortex area
Example Banana, Palm Pea, beans

Question 2: What are the functions of roots?

Answer:

Roots carry out different roles that are important for the endurance of the plants. They are a fundamental or coordinated framework that helps the plant in:

  • They support the plant body, guaranteeing that it stands erect.
  • The primary capability of the roots is to absorb water and break up minerals from soil which helps during photosynthesis.
  • Plants store food as starch in the leaves, shoots, and roots. Examples; carrots, radish, beetroot, and so on.
  • They play important role in the method of reproduction. For example, new plants emerge from crawling even stems called sprinters (stolons) in jasmine, grass, and so on. This sort of proliferation is called the vegetative spread.
  • Biological Function: They actually take a look at soil disintegration and give food, and furthermore territory to different organic entities.

Question 3: Why does there no secondary growth occur in monocot roots?

Answer:

Expansion in thickness of stem because of the development of lateral tissues is called Secondary growth. It happens generally in dicotyledons. It happens by the arrangement of horizontal meristems like vascular cambium and cork cambium. Vascular cambium is liable for the intra-stelar auxiliary development and cork cambium is responsible for extra stelar optional development. Secondary growth does not occur in monocot plants as they lack cambium in the vascular bundle between xylem and phloem.

Question 4: Which tissue is present more often in monocot roots than in dicot roots?

Answer:

Conjunctive tissues are masses of parenchymatous or sclerenchymatous cells that are available between the xylem and phloem packs in the vascular tissue. The amount of conjunctive tissue is more in monocot roots due to the presence of a large number of vascular bundles when compared to dicot roots. In dicot plants, the conjunctive tissues along with the pericycle lead to the vascular cambium during auxiliary development. No cambium development happens in monocot roots.

Question 5: How many vascular bundles are present in monocot roots?

Answer:

In monocot roots, the protoxylem components face pericycle among xylem and phloem components. Parenchyma cells are available comprising conjunctive tissue. This tissue doesn’t become meristematic. Vascular bundles are typically more than six in number and up to 20.

Question 6: Do dicot roots contains a Casparian strip?

Answer:

The Casparian strip is available in both monocot and dicot roots. The Casparian strip is the suberised, water-impermeable layer present in the endodermis.


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