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Deforestation and Its Causes | Class 8 Biology

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To save mother earth, it is very important to conserve our plants and animals. The backbone of our planet is plants and animals so it is our responsibility to conserve the treasure given to us by our planet. Richness of flora and fauna can be increased by conserving plants and animals because they enrich biodiversity. The main problem is caused by the cutting of plants or deforestation. Preventing the conditions in which animals can die on their own will be very helpful in conserving them. Moreover, it is the same case for plants where providing them more nutrition will be helpful. Preserving the resources for the future generation is very important for us to conserve plants and animals. Usually, conserving those species of animals and plants which are going to get extinct can help in preserving the diversity of flora and fauna. There are many ways by which we can save plants and animals. The causes due to deforestation are also discussed in the article along with their consequences so let’s get started.




Deforestation is the process of clearing or removing trees from forested land. Deforestation decreases the number of trees and affects the environment and ecosystem in a bad way. There are many reasons for deforestation such as acquiring space for constructing buildings, creating agricultural space, getting timber from trees, making medicines, manufacturing paper, for fuel, etc. Since the beginning of the 21st century, deforestation has increased rapidly, which results in global warming. At present, almost 31 percent of the land is covered with forest, which is low when compared to before. Every year, forest area in the size of Bangladesh is being destroyed by people around the world. That is almost equal to cutting down 2400 trees every minute. Almost 10 percent of the world’s forest area is lost between 1990 and 2015. Cutting trees is necessary for the present world for different purposes like food, medicines, timber, paper, etc. But it becomes a problem only when we don’t plant trees on that large scale. Afforestation should be on the scale of deforestation. Otherwise, it may result in raising temperatures around the world, damage to habitat, loss of biodiversity, and cause climate change in a bad way. The most severe issue due to deforestation is Global warming. That result in increasing the temperatures around the world. Cutting trees affect the habitat of animals. Other causes of deforestation are the smuggling of rare trees like sandalwood, overpopulation, growth of population, urbanization, and corruption of some government officials. Deforestation is not only a human-made phenomenon. One of the main causes of deforestation is natural phenomena like wildfires. Wildfires destroyed almost 23 percent of forests around the world. People have been cutting trees for many years. Mainly, people cut trees for harvesting crops and their livestock. Direct causes of deforestation include the expansion of agricultural activities, urbanization, mining, forest fires, expanding infrastructure projects, and fuel purposes.


Let’s see some causes of deforestation.

  •  Cutting trees for the paper industry.
  •  For manufacturing medicines.
  •  People cut forest areas to get land for agricultural purposes and domestic animals.
  •  For constructing buildings, people are clearing the forests.
  •  Making furniture from timber leads to deforestation.

Forest Conservation

Converting the forests for land uses, agriculture, settlements, other infrastructure projects, and new construction of roads leads to deforestation.

Forest Fires

One of the main reasons that contribute to the major part of deforestation is forest fires. It is a natural phenomenon, sometimes humans are the cause of forest fires. Every year, Millions of acres of forest are destroyed by forest fires. Forest fires are not happening in only one place. We can see forest fires everywhere on this earth. In addition to the long-term impacts of deforestation, forest fires also have immediate effects on climate like air pollution due to that fire. The result of forest fires has long worse consequences on humans, the climate, and even on the economy of nations.

Illegal Activities

Another main reason for deforestation is smuggling. Summers are cutting the trees and selling them on the black market. That has a bad impact on the economy of the nation. Illegal deforestation is happening in every place on earth, from Asia to South America. This illegally harvested wood finds its way to major markets like the USA and European Union.

Climate Change

Climate change has a worse effect on forests. Climate change is both cause and effect of deforestation. It is responsible for the drying of forests. Increased temperatures are responsible for forest fires and increased temperatures are making forest fires more intense.

Mining of Forests

Nowadays forests are being mined more and more because of minerals they found under the forests. Mining of tropical forests is increased due to the high demand for minerals. This hurts biodiversity.

Effect on Environment

Effects on Environment


  • Increases temperatures around the world.
  • Leads to global warming.
  • Decreases the rainfall.
  • Sudden change in the climate.

Deforestation has many bad effects on the environment. Deforestation is one of the main reasons for global warming. Deforestation of Tropical forests contributes to 20% of the world’s deforestation. According to IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change), the governing body of climate change around the world, one-third of the anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions is due to deforestation of tropical forests. Few studies prove that tropical forests can decrease the temperature of the world by 1 degree Celsius. Carbon dioxide, which is present in the atmosphere is forming a thick layer in the atmosphere due to the extensive cutting of trees. Radiation from the Sun traps in that thick layer of atmosphere. Trapped radiation converts into heat and increases the temperature on earth. This phenomenon is known as global warming. The carbon dioxide trapped in the atmosphere can be removed by only a tree. Tree stores carbon dioxide in their tissues.

Effect on Health

Deforestation leads to an imbalance in biodiversity. Many animals lost their habitat due to deforestation. Increased levels of greenhouse gases like methane and carbon dioxide affect the health of humans in a bad way. A low level of Oxygen leads to many respiratory problems. Due to Global warming, the intensity of the ozone layer decreases, which leads to the direct arrival of ultraviolet rays from the sun on Earth. Direct exposure of people to ultraviolet rays leads to many skin diseases and eye problems.  

FAQs on Deforestation and Its  Causes

Question 1: What is meant by deforestation?


Cutting or removing trees in an unorganized manner is known as deforestation. Deforestation has many severe effects on this planet. Deforestation results in global warming. Every year, people are destroying the forest area in size of the Country Bangladesh.

Question 2: What are the causes of deforestation?


Causes of deforestation

  1. Forest fires
  2. Negligence of governments
  3. Increased agricultural activities
  4. Change in climate
  5. Increase in infrastructure projects.
  6. Urbanization
  7. Mining of forests

Question 3: What are the effects of deforestation on the environment?


Effects of deforestation on the environment

  1. It affects Human skin and eyes very badly.
  2. Increases temperatures around the world.
  3. Amount of rainfall decreases.
  4. Sudden change in the climate.
  5. Results in Global Warming.
  6. Very badly affects human health.
  7. Direct penetration of Ultra violet rays into earth’s atmosphere.

Question 4: What is the mechanism of Global warming?


The main reason for Global warming or increasing temperatures on Earth is the heat-trapping mechanism of Carbon dioxide. Deforestation results in high levels of Carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. The Carbon dioxide which is present in the atmosphere traps the heat down here in the layers of the atmosphere and results in global warming.

Question 5: In what way forest fires are destroying the forests?


Forest fires are one of the main reasons for Deforestation. Forest fires contribute a major part to deforestation. It is a natural phenomenon. Forest fires sometimes occur due to human activities. Dry conditions in forests, high temperatures, and high flow of wind results in forest fires. This is the only phenomenon that results in deforestation on large scale without humans.

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Last Updated : 19 Sep, 2022
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