C++ Program to Swap characters in a String
Given a String S of length N, two integers B and C, the task is to traverse characters starting from the beginning, swapping a character with the character after C places from it, i.e. swap characters at position i and (i + C)%N. Repeat this process B times, advancing one position at a time. Your task is to find the final String after B swaps.
Input : S = "ABCDEFGH", B = 4, C = 3; Output: DEFGBCAH Explanation: after 1st swap: DBCAEFGH after 2nd swap: DECABFGH after 3rd swap: DEFABCGH after 4th swap: DEFGBCAH Input : S = "ABCDE", B = 10, C = 6; Output : ADEBC Explanation: after 1st swap: BACDE after 2nd swap: BCADE after 3rd swap: BCDAE after 4th swap: BCDEA after 5th swap: ACDEB after 6th swap: CADEB after 7th swap: CDAEB after 8th swap: CDEAB after 9th swap: CDEBA after 10th swap: ADEBC
- For large values of B, the naive approach of looping B times, each time swapping ith character with (i + C)%N-th character will result in high CPU time.
- The trick to solving this problem is to observe the resultant string after every N iterations, where N is the length of the string S.
- Again, if C is greater than or equal to the N, it is effectively equal to the remainder of C divided by N.
- Hereon, let’s consider C to be less than N.
- If we observe the string that is formed after every N successive iterations and swaps (let’s call it one full iteration), we can start to get a pattern.
- We can find that the string is divided into two parts: the first part of length C comprising of the first C characters of S, and the second part comprising of the rest of the characters.
- The two parts are rotated by some places. The first part is rotated right by (N % C) places every full iteration.
- The second part is rotated left by C places every full iteration.
- We can calculate the number of full iterations f by dividing B by N.
- So, the first part will be rotated left by ( N % C ) * f . This value can go beyond C and so, it is effectively ( ( N % C ) * f ) % C, i.e. the first part will be rotated by ( ( N % C ) * f ) % C places left.
- The second part will be rotated left by C * f places. Since, this value can go beyond the length of the second part which is ( N – C ), it is effectively ( ( C * f ) % ( N – C ) ), i.e. the second part will be rotated by ( ( C * f ) % ( N – C ) ) places left.
- After f full iterations, there may still be some iterations remaining to complete B iterations. This value is B % N which is less than N. We can follow the naive approach on these remaining iterations after f full iterations to get the resultant string.
s = ABCDEFGHIJK; c = 4;
parts: ABCD EFGHIJK
after 1 full iteration: DABC IJKEFGH
after 2 full iteration: CDAB FGHIJKE
after 3 full iteration: BCDA JKEFGHI
after 4 full iteration: ABCD GHIJKEF
after 5 full iteration: DABC KEFGHIJ
after 6 full iteration: CDAB HIJKEFG
after 7 full iteration: BCDA EFGHIJK
after 8 full iteration: ABCD IJKEFGH
Below is the implementation of the approach:
Time Complexity: O(n)
Space Complexity: O(n)
Please refer complete article on Swap characters in a String for more details!