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C++ Program to Count triplets with sum smaller than a given value

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  • Last Updated : 29 Dec, 2021

Given an array of distinct integers and a sum value. Find count of triplets with sum smaller than given sum value. The expected Time Complexity is O(n2).
Examples: 
 

Input : arr[] = {-2, 0, 1, 3}
        sum = 2.
Output : 2
Explanation :  Below are triplets with sum less than 2
               (-2, 0, 1) and (-2, 0, 3) 

Input : arr[] = {5, 1, 3, 4, 7}
        sum = 12.
Output : 4
Explanation :  Below are triplets with sum less than 12
               (1, 3, 4), (1, 3, 5), (1, 3, 7) and 
               (1, 4, 5)

 

A Simple Solution is to run three loops to consider all triplets one by one. For every triplet, compare the sums and increment count if the triplet sum is smaller than the given sum. 
 

C++




// A Simple C++ program to count triplets with sum smaller
// than a given value
#include<bits/stdc++.h>
using namespace std;
  
int countTriplets(int arr[], int n, int sum)
{
    // Initialize result
    int ans = 0;
  
    // Fix the first element as A[i]
    for (int i = 0; i < n-2; i++)
    {
       // Fix the second element as A[j]
       for (int j = i+1; j < n-1; j++)
       {
           // Now look for the third number
           for (int k = j+1; k < n; k++)
               if (arr[i] + arr[j] + arr[k] < sum)
                   ans++;
       }
    }
  
    return ans;
}
  
// Driver program
int main()
{
    int arr[] = {5, 1, 3, 4, 7};
    int n = sizeof arr / sizeof arr[0];
    int sum = 12;
    cout << countTriplets(arr, n, sum) << endl;
    return 0;
}


Output: 

4

The time complexity of the above solution is O(n3). An Efficient Solution can count triplets in O(n2) by sorting the array first, and then using method 1 of this post in a loop.
 

1) Sort the input array in increasing order.
2) Initialize result as 0.
3) Run a loop from i = 0 to n-2.  An iteration of this loop finds all
   triplets with arr[i] as first element.
     a) Initialize other two elements as corner elements of subarray
        arr[i+1..n-1], i.e., j = i+1 and k = n-1
     b) Move j and k toward each other until they meet, i.e., while (j= sum
                then k--
            // Else for current i and j, there can (k-j) possible third elements
            // that satisfy the constraint.
            (ii) Else Do ans += (k - j) followed by j++ 

Below is the implementation of the above idea. 
 

C++




// C++ program to count triplets with sum smaller than a given value
#include<bits/stdc++.h>
using namespace std;
  
int countTriplets(int arr[], int n, int sum)
{
    // Sort input array
    sort(arr, arr+n);
  
    // Initialize result
    int ans = 0;
  
    // Every iteration of loop counts triplet with
    // first element as arr[i].
    for (int i = 0; i < n - 2; i++)
    {
        // Initialize other two elements as corner elements
        // of subarray arr[j+1..k]
        int j = i + 1, k = n - 1;
  
        // Use Meet in the Middle concept
        while (j < k)
        {
            // If sum of current triplet is more or equal,
            // move right corner to look for smaller values
            if (arr[i] + arr[j] + arr[k] >= sum)
                k--;
  
            // Else move left corner
            else
            {
                // This is important. For current i and j, there
                // can be total k-j third elements.
                ans += (k - j);
                j++;
            }
        }
    }
    return ans;
}
  
// Driver program
int main()
{
    int arr[] = {5, 1, 3, 4, 7};
    int n = sizeof arr / sizeof arr[0];
    int sum = 12;
    cout << countTriplets(arr, n, sum) << endl;
    return 0;
}


Output: 

4

Please refer complete article on Count triplets with sum smaller than a given value for more details!


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