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Covalent Bonds – Definition, Types, Properties, Examples

  • Last Updated : 20 Oct, 2021

The matter is portrayed as any substance that has mass and devours space by having a volume in old-style material science and general science. Step by step fights that can be reached are ultimately contained atoms, which are involved in working together subatomic particles, and matter implies particles and everything included them, similarly as any particles that go about like they have both rest mass and volume, in both standard and coherent use. It doesn’t regardless, join massless particles like photons, similarly as other energy wonders or waves like light. There is a wide scope of states of issue.  

Various states, similar to plasma, Bose-Einstein condensates, fermionic condensates, and quark-gluon plasma, are possible regardless of the commendable common times of solid, liquid, and gas – for example, water exists as ice, liquid water, and vaporous steam – but various states, similar to plasma, Bose-Einstein condensates, fermionic condensates, and quark-gluon plasma, are moreover possible. Other than that, it’s disengaged into pure substances and mixes.

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What is a Chemical Bond?

Chemical bonding is the process of joining two or more atoms that involves the redistribution of electrons such that each atom engaged in the bonding obtains a stable electronic state.

Every one of the iotas completes their duplet or octet by gaining the closest respectable gas electronic setup to accomplish security. It tends to be accomplished by the development of compound connections between particles.  

An iota can shape substance bonds in three ways,  

  • By losing at least one electron to another iota.
  • By acquiring at least one electrons from another iota.
  • By imparting at least one electron to another iota

Types of Chemical Bonds

Chemical bonds are divided into four categories:

  1. Ionic or electrovalent bond
  2. Covalent bond
  3. Hydrogen bond
  4. Polar covalent bond

Covalent Bond

  1. A covalent bond, in basic words, is the sharing of electrons between particles to accomplish the honourable gas setup of taking an interest individual iotas.
  2. The iotas in a covalent bond are held together by the electrostatic power of fascination. This power is in the middle of the decidedly charged cores of the reinforced particles and the contrarily charged electrons they share.
  3. The electrons that join iotas in a covalent bond are known as the holding pair of electrons. These holding pair of electrons brings about the arrangement of a discrete gathering of particles called an atom—the littlest piece of a compound that holds the synthetic character of that compound.
  4. This kind of holding happens between two particles of a similar component or of components near one another in the occasional table. This holding happens principally between non-metals; in any case, it can likewise be seen between non-metals and metals.

Types of Covalent Bond

The arrangement of covalent bonds brings about a specific bond length. This bond length is a trademark property of mixtures that addresses a harmony between a few powers, for example,  

  1. The attraction between decidedly charged cores and contrarily charged electrons,  
  2. The repulsion between two contrarily charged electrons, and  
  3. The repulsion between two decidedly charged cores.  

The more limited bond length has more noteworthy bond strength. In view of the bond length, covalent bonds are of the accompanying sorts.



  • Single covalent bond
  • Double covalent bond
  • Triple covalent bond

Single covalent bond

A single covalent bond is framed by the common sharing of one electron pair between two molecules. In a single covalent bond, every particle contributes one electron for sharing. It is addressed by a solitary line (–) between the two iotas sharing electrons.

  • Formation of Chlorine Molecule: The valence shell of chlorine has seven electrons, and it needs one more electron to complete its octet. As a result, it may share an electron with another chlorine atom to form a chlorine molecule, as illustrated in the diagram below:

  • Formation of a Methane Molecule (CH4): The outermost shell of a carbon atom has four electrons (valence shell). Its valence electrons are shared with four H atoms. As a result, a carbon atom creates four solitary covalent connections with four hydrogen atoms.

A methane molecule is shown graphically as:

The carbon atom and each of the four H atoms in a methane molecule adopt the stable electrical states of neon and helium. There are four carbon-hydrogen (C–H) single bonds in methane. As a result, a methane molecule has four pairs of electrons that are shared.

Double Covalent Bond

The mutual sharing of two-electron pairs between two atoms forms a double covalent bond. Each atom offers two electrons for sharing in a double covalent connection. It symbolises the two atoms sharing electrons by a double line (=).

  • Formation of an Ethylene Molecule (C2H4): Each of the two C atoms joins with two H atoms to create two solitary covalent bonds in the creation of an ethylene molecule (C2H4). Each C atom’s remaining two electrons create a double bond between the two C atoms.



  • Formation of Carbon Dioxide Molecule (CO2): The valence shell of carbon has four electrons, and it takes four electrons to complete its octet, whereas the valence shell of oxygen has six electrons, and it takes two electrons to complete its octet. Carbon may complete its octet by creating two double bonds by sharing two electron pairs with two oxygen atoms. The following diagram depicts the creation of a carbon dioxide (CO2) molecule:

Triple Covalent Bond

The mutual sharing of three electron pairs between two atoms forms a triple covalent connection. Each atom gives three electrons for sharing in a triple covalent connection. The two atoms sharing electrons are represented by a triple line (≡).

  • Formation of an Acetylene Molecule (C2H2): Two C atoms join with two H atoms to form an acetylene molecule. Three of the valence electrons of each C atom are shared with the other C atom. As a result, one electron from each C atom and one electron from an H atom is shared.

Thus, there is a triple covalent link between the two C atoms in an acetylene molecule, and each C atom is connected to one H atom by a single covalent bond. As a result, a molecule of acetylene may be seen as:

Properties of Covalent Compounds

  1. Physical State: Generally, covalent mixtures are fluids or gases due to a feeble covalent power of fascination between their particles. A couple of them are solids.  
  2. Solubility: They are insoluble in water however are dissolvable in natural solvents. Notwithstanding, some covalent mixtures like sugar, urea, glucose, alkali, hydrogen chloride, and so forth, are dissolvable in water.  
  3. Melting Point and Boiling Point: They have a low softening point and edge of boiling over. It requires just a little measure of energy to break the feeble covalent power of fascination between the particles of covalent mixtures.  
  4. Electrical Conductivity: The covalent mixtures don’t have direct power since they don’t contain particles. In any case, covalent mixtures like smelling salts, hydrogen chloride lead power when broken down in the water. It is on the grounds that hydrogen chloride synthetically responds with water to shape hydrochloric corrosive containing particles

Sample Questions

Question 1: Explain the formation of triple bond?

Answer:

Nitrogen is a diatomic chemical that belongs to the VA family on the periodic table. With five valence electrons, nitrogen requires three additional valence electrons to complete its octet.

A nitrogen atom can fill its octet by sharing three electrons with another nitrogen atom, producing three covalent connections, the so-called triple bond.



Question 2: What is triple covalent bond?

Answer:

The mutual sharing of three electron pairs between two atoms forms a triple covalent connection. Each atom gives three electrons for sharing in a triple covalent connection. The two atoms sharing electrons are represented by a triple line (≡).

Question 3: What is covalent bond?

Answer:

A covalent bond is a chemical connection established between two atoms as a result of the mutual sharing of electrons. This is because the atoms only share their outermost electron, resulting in each atom having the inert gas’s stable electron configuration. Its covalency is the number of electrons shared between the atoms.

Question 4: What is a chemical bond?

Answer:

Chemical bonding is the process of joining two or more atoms that involves the redistribution of electrons such that each atom engaged in the bonding obtains a stable electronic state.

Question 5: What is Double covalent bond?

Answer:

The mutual sharing of two electron pairs between two atoms forms a double covalent bond. Each atom offers two electrons for sharing in a double covalent connection. It symbolises the two atoms sharing electrons by a double line (=).




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