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Copper II Nitrate Formula – Structure, Properties, Uses, Sample Questions

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  • Last Updated : 01 Jun, 2022
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Copper II Nitrate consists of the elements Copper, Nitrogen and Oxygen. Copper is a metal with good electrical & thermal conductivity. It is present in group-11 of the periodic table. Copper is represented with the symbol Cu and its atomic number is 29. Nitrogen is a colorless, tasteless, odorless gas and the most plentiful element in Earth’s atmosphere. It is present in group-15 of the periodic table and is represented with the symbol N. Oxygen is a highly reactive nonmetal present in group-16 of the periodic table. Its atomic number is 8 and is represented by the symbol O.

What is Copper II Nitrate?

Copper II Nitrate is an inorganic, blue-colored crystalline compound with the molecular formula Cu(NO3)2. It is obtained in two forms- trihydrate and hexahydrate forms. 

When the Cu(NO3)2 compound is burned, it produces toxic nitrogen oxides. The other names of Copper II Nitrate are Cupric nitrate and Copper Dinitrate. It exists naturally in nature and is partially found in some minerals such as rouaite and gerhardtite.

Structure of Copper II Nitrate

The chemical/molecular formula of the compound Copper II Nitrate is Cu(NO3)2, whose molecular structure can be represented as shown below:

Copper II Nitrate Structure

Preparation of Copper II Nitrate

  • Copper II Nitrate is prepared by Copper metal and Nitric Acid reaction. The chemical reaction is given by-

Cu + 4HNO3  →  Cu(NO3)2 + 2H2O + 2NO2

  • The other way to prepare Copper II Nitrate is by treating Copper with Dinitrogen tetraoxide.

Cu + 2N2O4  →  Cu(NO3)2 + 2NO

Physical Properties of Copper II Nitrate

  1. The Copper II Nitrate appears to be a Blue colored Crystalline solid.
  2. The molecular weight of Cu(NO3)2 is equal to 187.5558 g/mol.
  3. Copper II Nitrate is soluble in water, ethanol, and ammonia.
  4. The boiling and melting points of Copper II Nitrate are 170 °C and 114.5 °C respectively.
  5. The density of Cu(NO3)2 is 3.05 g/cm3.

Chemical Properties of Copper II Nitrate

  • Copper II Nitrate is used in pyrolysis process at above 180 °C to produce Cupric Oxide. The chemical reaction is mentioned below-

2Cu(NO3)2 → 2CuO + 4NO2 + O2

  • Copper Dinitrate reacts with acetic anhydride to boost the nitration process of aromatic compounds such as benzene.
  • When blue-colored Copper (II) Nitrate reacts with colorless Sodium Hydroxide produces a light blue color precipitate as,

Cu(NO3)2 + 2NaOH  →  Cu(OH)2 + 2NaNO3

Harmful Effects of Copper II Nitrate

  • Copper II Nitrate irritates the eyes, skin, throat and lungs.
  • It is non-combustible compound but combined with wood and paper leads to severe fire breakout.

Safety measures of Copper II Nitrate

  • Keep the Copper II Nitrate compound away from the body to prevent irritation in body parts.
  • We need to make sure that Cu(NO3)2 shouldn’t come into contact with explosives, and wood.

Uses of Copper II Nitrate

  • Copper II Nitrate is used as an insecticide.
  • It is used in the production of medicines and light-sensitive papers.
  • Copper Dinitrate is used to generate the Cupric oxide.
  • It manufactures pyrotechnic, coats and blue colors.
  • On burning Copper II Nitrate generates toxic oxides of Nitrogen.

Sample Questions

Question 1: Copper II Nitrate is health hazardous compound?


Yes. It is a health hazardous compound. Copper II Nitrate cause irritation to the throat, lungs, eyes and skin. It is combined with wood to cause fire breakouts.

Question 2: Give pyrolysis process of Copper II Nitrate.


Copper II Nitrate is heated at 180 °C in boiling tube to produce copper oxide, nitrogen dioxide and oxygen gas.

2Cu(NO3)2 → 2CuO + 4NO2 + O2

Question-3: Find the molecular weight of Copper II Nitrate.


Copper II Nitrate consists of 1 Copper atom, 2 Nitrogen, 6 Oxygen atoms.

Atomic weight of Copper = 63.546

Atomic weight of each Nitrogen = 14.0067 

Atomic weight of each Oxygen = 15.999 

Molecular weight of Cu(NO3)2 = 63.546 + (2 × 14.0067) + (6 × 15.999)


Question 4: What happens when Ammonia reacts with Copper II Nitrate?


When Ammonia is added to the Copper II Nitrate we get a pale blue precipitate Cu(OH)2 and the dark blue colored compound because of Cu(NH3)4 2+.

Question 5: What are the uses of Copper II Nitrate?


Copper II Nitrate is used in production of medicines. It is used in making of papers. It acts as an insecticide. It generate cupric oxide. It is also used in chemical analysis.

Question 6: Give a way to prepare Cupric Nitrate.


Copper II Nitrate is prepared by the reaction of Copper metal with Nitric Acid. The chemical reaction is given by-

Cu + 4HNO3 → Cu(NO3)2 + 2H2O + 2NO2

Question 7: Is Cupric Nitrate Ionic or covalent compound?


Copper II Nitrate is an ionic compound. Because copper is a metal and Nitrogen and oxygen elements are non metals. So there exists an ionic bond between a metal and non metal. So ionic bond is present in between Cu+2 and NO3

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