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Copper I Chloride Formula – Structure, Properties, Uses, Sample Questions

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  • Last Updated : 04 Jul, 2022
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Copper is a chemical element with the symbol Cu with atomic number 29 in its periodic table. It is soft and has very high thermal and electrical conductivity. It is pinkish-orange in color. Chlorine (Cl) is a greenish-yellow gas with atomic number 17 in the periodic table. It has a pungent odor-like smell. This gas is harmful to nature, it is 2-5 times denser than air. It is the 2nd lightest halogen among all the elements. It has two isotopes, that are stable.

Copper I Chloride

Copper I chloride is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula CuCl. It is also called Cuprous chloride, Copper monochloride, or Dicopper dichloride. It is the lower chloride of copper. It is a white crystalline solid. It is slightly green in color due to its impurities of oxidation. It is insoluble in water and very rarely soluble in concentrated hydrochloric acid.

Chemical Formula of Copper I Chloride

The Chemical formula of Copper I Chloride is CuCl2.

2Cu + Cl2 ⇢ 2CuCl

Structure of Copper I Chloride

It is a cubic zincblende crystal structure that changes to a hexagonal shape when heated. At temperature 408°C. Copper I Chloride is a Lewis acid that contains empty orbitals in which copper has a +1 oxidation state. It is capable of accepting electron pairs from the Lewis base.

 

Preparation of Copper I Chloride 

  • Copper I chloride is prepared by combining copper and chlorine at a temperature of 450–900°C:

2Cu + Cl2 ⇢ 2CuCl

  • It can also be prepared by combining Cuprite with Hydrogen Chloride.

Cu2O + 2HCl ⇢ 2CuCl + H2O

Physical Properties of Copper I Chloride

  • The Molecular weight of Copper I Chloride is  98.996 g/mol.
  • The Density of Copper I Chloride is 4.14 g/cm3.
  • The Boiling Point of Copper I Chloride is 1,490°C.
  • The Melting Point of Copper I Chloride is 423°C
  • The Solubility in water is 0.047 g/L.

Chemical Properties of Copper I Chloride

  • Copper I chloride can dissolve in aqueous solutions containing halide ions and form complexes like in the theme formation of H3O+, CuCl2- with concentrated hydrochloric acid.
  • Solutions of copper I chloride in HCl or NH3 absorb carbon monoxide to result in the formation of complexes that are colorless.

4CuCl + O2 + 2H2O → Cu3Cl2(OH)4 + CuCl2

Uses of Copper I Chloride

  • It is used as a precursor to fungicide copper oxychloride. 
  • It is used as a catalyst in a variety of reactions that are organic in nature.
  • It is used with carbon monoxide, hydrogen chloride, and aluminum chloride in the formation of benzaldehydes.
  • It is used to produce other copper compounds.
  • It is used in the production of silicone polymers, ethylene-propene rubbers, dialkyl carbonates, and acrylonitrile.
  • It is also used as a desulfurizing agent in the petroleum industry.
  • It is used in the denitration of cellulose.
  • It is used as a condensing agent for soaps, fats, and oils.

Sample Questions

Question 1: What is the compound formed when copper I chloride is reacted with Carbon Monoxide?

Answer:

The compound that is formed when Copper I chloride is reacted with Carbon monoxide is Copper I Chloride dihydrate carbon monoxide adduct. This compound is formed during the Gatterman Koch reaction. It is the reaction that produces aromatic aldehyde from aromatic hydrocarbons. It is also used in Bosch Process for removal for carbon monoxide.

CuCl + CO + 2H2O ⇢ CuCl.CO.2H2O

Question 2: Is Cucl have an Ionic bond or a Covalent bond?

Answer:

It has Covalent bond  because cu has a pseudo noble gas structure and has 18 electrons in the outermost shell.Copper I Chloride is a Lewis acid which contains empty orbitals in which copper has +1 oxidation state.

Question 3: What are the reagents that are used in the Gatterman Koch reaction?

Answer:

The reagents that are used in Gatterman Koch reaction are Carbon Monoxide, Hydrochloric acid, Copper I chloride, Aluminum Chloride. In this reaction, the compound formed is Copper I Chloride Dihydrate carbon monoxide adduct. 

Question 4: What are the health hazards of CuCl?

Answer: 

Copper I Chloride can affect when it is inhaled and can irritate nose, throat and lungs causing coughing and wheezing.
It can severely irritate and burn the skin and eyes. It can also cause thickening of the skin.

Question 5: What is the Colour of CuCl?

Answer: 

It is a white crystalline solid. It is slightly green in colour due to its impurities of oxidation. It is  insoluble in water and very rarely soluble in concentrated hydrochloric acid.

Question 6: Is Cucl soluble in water?

Answer:

It is insoluble in water because the molecular size of the Cu metal is more larger than the water molecules. That is  why CuCl is insoluble in the water.

Question 7: Is CuCl a salt or acid?

Answer: 

CuCl is a salt, as there are no OH and H in this compound. We know that all metal chlorides are salts. CuCl is a salt which is insoluble in water and it has covalent bond.

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