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Construction and Demolition Waste Management

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  • Last Updated : 30 Sep, 2022
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Construction and demolition waste includes concrete, timber, lumber, roofing drywall, landscaping asphalt, gypsum, metals, plastics, doors, windows, and plumbing materials.  The waste come through the process of building and structural construction, refurbishment, and destruction. The construction and Demolition waste management rules, 2016 tell about the details and responsibilities of the pollution control board,  state governments, local authorities, and services. C&D Waste is the word used to describe the waste produced during construction and demolition. In India, C&D waste has significantly increased in recent years. States should be given specific instructions by the NGT on how to handle C&D trash. Municipalities collect C&D garbage along with other types of solid waste in many areas of India, even though C&D waste ought to be collected separately. India’s tallest building Noida’s twin tower which is taller than Qutub Minar was demolished on 28th august in Noida. It was according to the order of the Supreme Court order as it violates the building code. Developer Supertech had a loss of  1,000 crores after demolition and another 20 crores to raze the building. There are already 62 million tonnes of rubbish produced annually in the nation. According to a recent CSE report, India only manages to recover and recycle roughly 1% of its construction and demolition (C&D) waste.

Construction and Demolition Waste Management Rules, 2016:

  • The construction and demolition waste management rules, 2016  were published on March 2016. It comes under the Ministry of Environment, forestry, and climate change.  
  • Any person who generates waste from construction and demolition is subject to the 2016 Construction and Demolition Waste Management Rules.
  • Climate change is a widely talked topic that needs serious care. About 530 million tonnes of garbage is produced every year due to building and demolition. This law is a step to address the pollution and waste management problems.
  • Recent news of Twin towers in Noida, Uttar Pradesh were demolished by a controlled implosion impose importance on such laws.
  • It was told by the then environment minister that demolition and construction waste is not waste but a resource. Recovery, recycling, and reuse of trash produced during building and demolition form the cornerstone of these regulations.
  • Cities with a population of more than one million were asked to process and dispose of the facility within 18 months from the date of final notification.
  • Cities with a population of 0.5 million and below 0.5 million will be provided facilities within two years and three years respectively.
  • Large generators of the waste will have to pay specific charges for collection, transportation, processing, and disposal.

Features of Construction and Demolition waste management Rules, 2016:

1. Duties of waste generator:

  • To segregate construction and demolition waste and deposit or handover it over to authorized processing facilities. It should be segregated into four streams such as concrete, soil, steel, wood and plastics, bricks, and mortar.
  • Ensure that it has no littering or deposition.
  • Avoid obstruction of the traffic or the drains.
  • Large generators with 20 tons per day or 300 tons per month should submit a waste management plan and get approvals from the local authority.
  • Large generators should have an environmental management plan.

2. Duties of Service providers and contractors:

  • They were directed to prepare a comprehensive waste management plan for their jurisdiction within six months.
  • They should remove the construction and demolition waste with the help of local authority or their own.

3. Duties of State Government and Local Authorities:

  • The secretary, UDD shall prepare the policy within one year.
  • The concerned department will provide suitable sites or storage, processing, and recycling facilities for the waste within one and half years. It will be supported by the town and country planning for approval and to avoid disturbance in long term.
  • They should procure 10-20 % waste.
  • They are instructed to provide containers for the collection, removal, and transportation of waste.
  • They will be seeking detailed plans and undertakings from large generators.
  • Database should be updated in a year and should provide an incentive for the generator of salvaging, and processing institute.

4. Duties of Central, State Pollution Control Board :

  • Central control board should prepare operational guidelines related to environmental management.
  • State control board should grant authorization to local waste management facilities.
  • They must monitor the whole waste management process and submit the annual report to pollution control boards.

5. Duties of Central Ministries:

  • The waste management rules include The Ministry of Urban Development, the Ministry of Rural Development, Ministry of panchayati Raj.
  • The Ministry of Environment, forest, and climate change is the reviewer of this rule.

6. The Standard for Products of Construction and Demolition Waste:

  • The Bureau of Indian Standards prepares a code of practices and standard products.
  • Indian Roads congress prepare standards and practices related to road demolition and construction waste.

Why demolition waste needs to manage properly:

  • To segregate it from municipal waste.
  • Mixing waste will reduce the recycling option.
  • The efficiency of waste processing will reduce if not properly segregated.
  • For maintaining the safety of workers and laborers.
  • To have a targeted solution to pollution generated by construction waste.

Impact of the Construction and Demolition Waste:

  • Air- Waste while disassembled generates dust and large particulates. It affects the respiratory health of waste management workers.
  • water- Landfills are not enough capable to hold waste and compounds leach to the ground and then groundwater gets toxified due to heavy metals.
  • Soil- Soil of the area is directly contaminated by the waste or during recycling or disposal. Waste consisting of lead mercury, cadmium, and arsenic has a bad impact on soil and then on the water.

Concerns related to rule:

  • Out of 25 to 30 million tones of C&D waste only 5 % of its gets treated.
  • Dirt, sand, and gravel which are 36 % of total C&D waste affect soil fertility.
  • Improper functioning of pollution control boards.
  • The need for recycling is critical because widespread sand mining is already eroding river beds and increasing flood damage.

Suggestions for Better Functioning:

  • Proper need of documentation and easily accessible data.
  • Waste management asks for robust estimation and characterization of waste.
  • The recent materials like Styrofoam, plastic spacers, asbestos, and other materials needs special concern.
  • Infrastructure projects should focus on their waste management units with the specific target of waste they generate and reduce the burden of common sites.
  • Country should move towards green buildings which need C&D trash.


Construction and demolition waste management rules are introduced to deal with construction and demolition waste. The rule specifies the responsibility of different stakeholders involved in the process from generating waste to recycling it.  The concern related to the rule needs to be addressed by taking accountability and considering anything related to the environment should be dealt with in logical, sustainable steps.

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