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Constituent Assembly of India

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The idea of a constituent assembly was proposed for the first time by M.N. Roy in 1934 but the actual assembly was formulated in 1946 based on what is known to be the cabinet mission plan. In Class 9, in the Civics section of Chapter 2, Constitutional Design, the section on the Constituent Assembly of India is very important.

Constituent Assembly of India

Constituent Assembly of India

Background to the Constituent Assembly of India

Based on the following table, we can understand the background behind the formation of the constituent assembly in India:

Constituent Assembly of India: Background
In 1934, MN Roy was the first person to propose the idea of a constituent assembly.
Congress Party in 1935 took it up as an official demand.
In 1940, the British accepted it as the “August Offer”.
Under the Cabinet Mission Plan of 1946, elections were held for the formation of the constituent assembly.

Members were elected indirectly,i.e by the members of the provincial assemblies by the method of what 

was known as a single transferable vote of proportional representation.

The Constituent Assembly was formulated to write a constitution for independent India.

Composition of Constituent Assembly

The initial number of members in the Constituent Assembly was around 389 and after the partition, some of the members went to Pakistan and the number came down to 299; out of which 229 were from the British provinces and 70 were nominated from the princely states. Dr. Sachchidananda Sinha was the first temporary chairman of the Constituent Assembly and then Rajendra Prasad was elected as the President and its Vice President was called Harendra Coomar Mookerjee and BN Rau was the constitutional advisor.

Key Facts Related to the Constituent Assembly of India

Q1. When did the constituent assembly meet first?


The Assembly first met on 9th December 1946.

Q2. Was there any role of the Indian Muslim League in the formation of the Constitution of India?


No, the Indian Muslim League did not play any role in the constituent assembly as it came to boycott this meeting by the citation of their demand for partition.

Q3. What is “Objective Resolution” concerned with the constituent assembly of India?


Objective Resolution enshrined the aspirations as well as values of the constitution-makers and people of India was guaranteed social, economic, and also political justice, equality, and also fundamental rights. This Resolution was adopted on 22 January 1947 and Preamble to the Constitution is based on it.

Q4. When was Objective Resolution moved and also by whom?


Objective Resolution was moved on 13 December 1946 by Jawaharlal Nehru.

Q5. When was the National Flag of the Union adopted?


The National Flag was adopted by Union on 22 July 1947.

Q6. How many days was the constituent assembly assembled to frame the constitution?


2 years 11 months and 17 days.

Q7. When was Jana Gana Mana adopted as our National Anthem?


Jana Gana Mana was adopted as the national anthem on 24th January 1950.

Q8. How many articles were there in the final constitution?


The final constitution had 22 parts, 395 articles, and 8 schedules.

Q9. What is the total number of sessions the constituent assembly had?


There were 11 sessions held.

Q10. When did the Constitution of India come into force?


The constitution of India came into force on 26 January 1950.

Committees of Constituent Assembly of India

Committees of Constituent Assembly of India
Drafting Committee Dr. B.R.Ambedkar
Union Constitution Committee Jawaharlal Nehru
Union Powers Committee Jawaharlal Nehru
States Committee Jawaharlal Nehru
Steering Committee Dr. Rajendra Prasad
Rules of Procedure Committee Dr. Rajendra Prasad
Provincial Constitution Committee Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel

Advisory Committee on Fundamental Rights,

Minorities and Tribal and Excluded Areas

  1. Fundamental Rights Sub-Committee: Acharya Kripalani
  2. Minorities Sub-Committee: H C Mookerjee
  3. Excluded and Partially Excluded Areas: A V Thakkar
  4. Northeast Frontier Tribal Areas and Assam: Gopinath Bordoloi

Criticism of the Constituent Assembly

  1. Because the members were not directly elected by the adult franchise, it was not a representative body. The leaders, on the other hand, had widespread popular support. Direct elections by the universal adult franchise would have been impractical at the time when the country was on the verge of split and rife with communal violence.
  2. The constitution is supposed to have taken a long time to draught. However, given the complexities and idiosyncrasies of the diverse and big Indian nation, this is understandable.
  3. Since it was established by the British, the constituent assembly was not a sovereign entity. It did, however, function as an independent and sovereign organization.
  4. The Constitution’s wording was criticized for being literary and convoluted.
  5. The Congress Party held the majority in the assembly. However, the party naturally dominated provincial legislatures. It was also a varied party, with members from nearly every element of Indian society.
  6. The assembly was supposed to be dominated by Hindus. This was due to community proportional representation once again.

Related Links

  1. Democratic Constitution in South Africa
  2. Why Do we Need a Constitution?
  3. Making of Indian Constitution

FAQs on Constituent Assembly of India

Q1. When was the Constituent Assembly formed in India?


The Constituent Assembly of India was formed on 1946 for framing the Constitution of India, which was first proposed by 1934 by M.N.Roy, devised by Cabinet Mission Plan.

Q2. What was the role of Constituent Assembly in India?


The main role of the Constituent Assembly in India was to elect for writing the Constitution of India.

Q3. Who wrote the Constitution of India?


The Constitution of India was written by Prem Behari Narain Raizada.

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Last Updated : 19 Apr, 2023
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