Conservation of Flora and Fauna
A vast, interrelated system of biotic and abiotic factors makes up an ecosystem. All living species, including plants, animals, and bacteria, are considered biotic components. Abiotic components, on the other hand, are non-living entities that are necessary for life to survive, such as soil, water, and climate. Flora and Fauna are the most intriguing of all biotic components.
What is Flora?
Many criteria are used to classify and differentiate flora. The place in which they grow or are located is the best among them. Some thrive in deserts or near water, some in hilly locations, while yet others are indigenous to a particular region.
They have adaptations based on the environment in which they grow. Cactus plants, for example, maybe found in deserts. To save water and protect themselves from predators, they have developed adaptations such as modified leaves or panicles.
The agricultural flora is made up of plants that have been produced for human use. Horticulture, sometimes known as garden flora, is the discipline of cultivating attractive and colourful flowers. Hence, flora can be defined as:
Flora is the collective name for all plant life that exists or ever grew in a specific region or at a specific time. It typically refers to the existing native plant life, but it may also apply to newly imported species. Latin names have been given to the earth’s vegetation and animals.
What is Fauna?
The Fauna is the abundance of animal life in a certain location or period. Fauna is known as the ‘Goddess of Fertility,’ and it includes a vast range of animal life. The taxonomy of the animal kingdom is widely available, with categories such as birds, fish, microbes, and cryptofauna (undiscovered species) among the most common. Birds are referred to as Avifauna, whereas fish are referred to as Piscifauna. Microfauna is a word used to describe tiny creatures such as Archaea and bacteria.
The term fauna simply refers to all of the creatures that live in a certain area. All interconnected species, from pheasants to vultures, mammals from mice to bison, worms to reptiles, insects, soil and water fauna, and so on, belong under the category of fauna.
Flora and Fauna in India
India’s flora and fauna are diversified, having a wide range of plant and animal species. India’s famous fauna comprises 500 distinct animal species, 2000 bird species, 30.000 insect species, and a variety of fish, amphibians, and reptiles. Elephants, Royal Bengal Tigers, rhinos, bison, and lions are some of the country’s most prevalent animals.
The Alpines, temperate woods, deciduous forests, evergreen forests, oaks, rhododendrons, pine, spruce, deodar, laurels, maples, bamboos, and tall grasses are among the flora found in India.
Conservation of Flora and Fauna
To conserve the wildlife or protect flora and Fauna, government has taken many initiatives. Some of the initiatives programmes are :
- To prevent flora and fauna, the Government has set up 18 biosphere reserves.
- In the world’s network of biosphere reserves, 10 out of these 18 biosphere reserves like the Sundarbans in the West Bengal, Nanda Devi in Uttarakhand, the gulf of Mannar in Tamil Nadu and the Nilgiris (Kerala, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu ) have been included.
- Since 1992 Government has given full support by providing financial and technical assistance to many Botanical Gardens.
- Many eco-development projects have been started by the government to protect the Flora and Fauna such as Project Tiger, Project Rhinos, Project Great Indian Bustard etc.
- In 1972, India has implemented Wild Protection Act.
- To protect the Natural heritage government has set up 103 National parks, 535 wildlife sanctuaries and zoological gardens.
- Apart from these, We must realise the importance of the Ecosystem for our own survival, then only this destruction of the natural environment can come to an immediate end.
Steps to Conserve Flora and Fauna
Plant and animal habitats need to be safeguarded: Animals and plants are used as resources by humans, but their habitat may be valued as well. There are several examples of forest lands being converted to agriculture in Africa, resulting in biodiversity loss. Coastal mangroves are being displaced by agriculture and aquaculture all across the world, and urbanisation is eliminating many species’ natural habitats. As a result, these habitats must be safeguarded.
Humans should spend less time on animals and plants: As people’s living conditions improve in developing countries, there is a higher demand for meat production because more people can afford to eat meat. This raises the demand for natural resources utilised in the meat industry. In the United States, for example, the grains used to feed livestock could feed 800 million humans. As a result, to supply the demand for meat, humans are destroying more natural areas. Choosing to eat less meat would reduce the demands on most of the resources required to create it, from food to water to space.
Animal and plant resources become scarce as a result of market forces: Elephant and rhino ivories in Africa are instances of diminishing animal resources. The tusks and horns of these animals become increasingly scarce and valuable when they fall prey to cartel shooters. Ivory is being hoarded by buyers in the hopes that its value would rise in the future. In the previous year, prices for Asian wood goods like rosewood have increased by up to 90%. In each case, protecting animal and plant resources entails a fight against market pressures such as ivory bans and logging export restrictions.
Question 1: Give two differences between Flora and Fauna?
Refers to the species of plant of a particular region. Refers to the species of animals of a particular region. In India plant species are 47000 In India, Animal species are 90000
Question 2: State two uses of biosphere reserve?
Two uses of bio sphere reserves are –
- The main use is to preserve wild life, flora and fauna in their natural forms.
- This reserves help us to maintain the environmental, economic and social sustainability of the region by encouraging the proper use of natural and human resources.
Question 3: How many setups governments have created for the protection of the natural heritage of India?
To protect the Natural heritage of India , Government has setup 103 national parks and 535 wildlife sanctuaries .
Question 4: How do flora and fauna make their food?
Flora make their food by the photosynthesis. Fauna cannot make food by their own , so animals like herbivore dependent on flora and some dependent on other animals for food .
Question 5: How does soil affect the flora and fauna of a region?
Soil affects the flora and fauna because the type of soil vary from place to place . This is the major factor of relief which affects the flora and fauna of a region .
For Example, cactus and thorny bushes grow in support of the sandy soils , deltaic soil supports mangroves and deltaic vegetation .
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