Like previous articles, let us take up a design problem to understand command pattern. Suppose you are building a home automation system. There is a programmable remote which can be used to turn on and off various items in your home like lights, stereo, AC etc. It looks something like this.
You can do it with simple if-else statements like
if (buttonPressed == button1) lights.on()
But we need to keep in mind that turning on some devices like stereo comprises of many steps like setting cd, volume etc. Also we can reassign a button to do something else. By using simple if-else we are coding to implementation rather than interface. Also there is tight coupling.
So what we want to achieve is a design that provides loose coupling and remote control should not have much information about a particular device. The command pattern helps us do that.
Definition: The command pattern encapsulates a request as an object, thereby letting us parameterize other objects with different requests, queue or log requests, and support undoable operations.
The definition is a bit confusing at first but let’s step through it. In analogy to our problem above remote control is the client and stereo, lights etc. are the receivers. In command pattern there is a Command object that encapsulates a request by binding together a set of actions on a specific receiver. It does so by exposing just one method execute() that causes some actions to be invoked on the receiver.
Parameterizing other objects with different requests in our analogy means that the button used to turn on the lights can later be used to turn on stereo or maybe open the garage door.
queue or log requests, and support undoable operations means that Command’s Execute operation can store state for reversing its effects in the Command itself. The Command may have an added unExecute operation that reverses the effects of a previous call to execute.It may also support logging changes so that they can be reapplied in case of a system crash.
Below is the Java implementation of above mentioned remote control example:
Light is on Stereo is on Stereo is set for CD input Stereo volume set to 11 Stereo is off
Notice that the remote control doesn’t know anything about turning on the stereo. That information is contained in a separate command object. This reduces the coupling between them.
- Makes our code extensible as we can add new commands without changing existing code.
- Reduces coupling between the invoker and receiver of a command.
- Increase in the number of classes for each individual command
Further Read – Command Method in Python
- Head First Design Patterns (book)
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