India’s climate consists of a diverse spectrum of meteorological conditions spread across a huge geographic scale and varying topography, making generalisations difficult. According to the Koppen climate classification, India has six primary climatic subtypes, ranging from dry deserts in the west to alpine tundra and glaciers in the north, and wet tropical areas with rain forests in the southwest and island territories. Many locations have dramatically distinct microclimates, making it one of the world’s most climatically diverse countries.
With certain local adaptations, the country’s meteorological agency follows the worldwide norm of four seasons: winter (January and February), summer (March, April, and May), monsoon (rainy) season (July to August), and a post-monsoon period (October to December).
Climate is defined as the sum of weather conditions and fluctuations across a vast region during a period of more than thirty years. But what distinguishes weather from climate? The condition of the atmosphere above a region at any particular time is referred to as weather. The weather might fluctuate throughout the day, whereas a country’s climate remains consistent for several years.
There is a large body of evidence that human activity, such as agriculture and manufacturing, causes accidental weather alteration. Acid rain, which is generated by industrial sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxide emissions into the atmosphere, has a negative impact on freshwater lakes, flora, and buildings. Anthropogenic pollutants have a negative impact on air quality and visibility. Long-term implications of accidental weather manipulation might endanger many parts of society, including ecosystems, natural resources, food and fiber production, economic growth, and human health.
Climate change produced by human activities that release greenhouse gases into the atmosphere is predicted to increase the frequency of extreme weather events such as drought, extreme temperatures, flooding, high winds, global warming, and severe storms. Global Warming is frequently referred to as “Climate Change.”
Factors for the Climatic Controls
Basically, the permanent factors that control the general nature of the climate of any location on the Earth are called factors of climatic control. There are six factors of climatic control which are below:
The amount of solar energy receives varies with latitude due to the curvature of the earth, which has further resulted in a decrease in temperature from the equator towards the poles.
The Air becomes less dense and temperature decreases with the increase in height from the Earth’s surface. As a result of this fluctuation in temperature because of the height, the hilly regions are much cooler in summer.
Pressure and Wind system:
Latitude and Altitude both determined the pressure and wind system of an area and also influence the temperature and rainfall pattern.
Distance from the sea:
As the distance from the sea increases, it exerts moderating influence on climate. It means as the distance from the sea increases then the weather conditions will become more extreme because at that time moderating influence decreases. This is known as Continentality. In this condition, the weather becomes very hot during summer and very cold in winter.
The climate of coastal areas is affected by ocean currents, along with onshore winds. For Example, Any coastal area will be cooled and warmed if the winds are onshore currents flowing warm or cold.
Relief Features :
In determining the climate of any area, relief also plays an important role. They may cause precipitation as if they are high enough and lie in the path of rain-bearing winds because High mountains act as a barrier for cold and hot winds. As a part of this, the leeward side gets less rain or almost remain dry.
Question 1: What do you mean by Curvature?
It refers to the fact of being curved or the degree to which something is curved. For Example, the amount of solar energy receives varies with latitude due to the curvature of the earth. which has further resulted in a decrease in temperature from the equator towards the pole.
Question 2: What is trade winds?
Trade winds are the winds that blow steadily from east to west towards the equator over most of the Equatorial zone. As cool air moves in to take place from the North and from the South, it is caused by the hot air rising at the equator.
Question 3: State three differences between climate and weather?
The difference between Climate and Weather are:
It refers to the total sum of weather conditions and variations over a large area period of time or more than 30 years. It refers to the state of the atmosphere over an area at any point in time or for a few days. It is basically referred to the large area It is about a particular area Climate is the collective effect of all its elements. Weather is influenced or controlled by any one of its elements like humidity, temperature etc.
Question 4: How do the Distance from the sea influence the climate of India?
It happens because regions located near the sea have moderate climate and those who are lying away from it will face extreme climate. As the distance from the sea increases, it exerts moderating influence on climate. It means as the distance from the sea increases then the weather conditions will become more extreme because at that time moderating influence decreases.
Question 5: What is the role of temperature in climate control?
The role of temperature is very crucial in the climatic condition of India because, in the same season, there are so many variation in the temperature of different parts of the country. For example, the temperature difference between Rajasthan and Jammu kashmir in the same season .In summer there is temperature of 50° C In Rajasthan deserts but on the same day there is 20 °C temperature in pahalgam in jammu and kashmir
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