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Chromium III Nitrate Formula – Structure, Properties, Uses, Sample Questions

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  • Last Updated : 02 Aug, 2022
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Chromium (Cr), a chemical element of Group 6 (VIb) of the Periodic Table, is a hard steel that is highly polished and used in alloys to increase strength and corrosion resistance-grey metal. Mainly used as electroplating, tanning, printing, dyeing, medicine, fuel, catalyst, oxidizer, match, and metal corrosion inhibitor. At the same time, metallic chromium has evolved into one of the most important electroplated metals. Nitrate is an inorganic compound consisting of one nitrogen atom (N) and three oxygen atoms (O). The chemical symbol for nitrate is NO3. Nitrate is usually not harmful unless it is reduced to nitrite (NO2).
Nitrate is used as a fertilizer in agriculture due to its high solubility and biodegradability. The main fertilizers are ammonium salt, sodium salt, potassium salt, calcium salt, and magnesium salt.

Chromium III Nitrate

Chromium (III) Nitrate represents a group of inorganic compounds consisting of chromium, which is chromium nitrate with varying amounts of water. It is not so commercially important and has been found to be applied in the dyeing industry. They are used in academic laboratories to synthesize chromium coordination complexes. Here, in this article, you will learn more about the formula of chromium III nitrate, along with its chemical structure and properties.

Chromium III Nitrate Formula

The IUPAC name for chromium trinitrate is chromium (3+); trinitrate. Chromium III nitrate, also known as chromium trinitrate, has the chemical formula Cr [(H2O)6] (NO3)3. 3H2O is a water-containing type, and Cr(NO3)3 is an anhydrous type. It briefly describes the complex structure of this inorganic compound.

Structure of Chromium (III) Nitrate

These types of complex structures are common in hydrated metals such as chromium nitrate III.  This compound is centered around a chromium atom with six aqua (water) -ligand bonds, and the remaining amount of solid is due to 3 nitrate anions and 3 water crystallization molecules. The chemical composition of Chromium Nitrate (III) is as follows,

  • Chromium is present at 21.84% 
  • Nitrogen is present at 17.65%  
  • Oxygen is present at 60.50%

 

Preparation of Chromium (III) Nitrate

  • The first method is an easy way to dissolve chromium oxide in nitric acid,

Cr2O3 + 6HNO3 ⇢ 2Cr(NO3)3 + 3H2O

  • The second process produces a more stable form of chromium (III) nitrate in a concentrated aqueous form of chromium (III) nitrate containing a specific transcarboxylic acid. It is prepared by heating trans acid with chromium (III) nitrate and alkali. The reactant ratio is 1 gram atom of chromium vs. 1.0 to 1.5 gram equivalent of alkali vs. 0.4 to 0.6 mol of trans acid. 

Physical properties of Chromium (III) Nitrate

  • Chromium III Nitrate is also known as Nitric acid, Chromium (3+) salt
  • Appearance ⇢ Blue-violet crystals
  • Chemical Formula ⇢ Cr(NO3)3 (anhydrous)
  • Melting Point ⇢ 60.06°C
  • Boiling Point ⇢ greater than 100°C
  • Density ⇢ 1.85 g/cm3
  • Molar Mass ⇢ 238.011 g/mol (anhydrous).

Chemical properties of Chromium (III) Nitrate

  • When chromium(III) nitrate reacts with zinc, it forms Chromium and Zinc nitrate, which is a displacement reaction.

2Cr(NO3)3 + 3Zn  ⇢  2Cr + 3Zn(NO3)2

  • When chromium(III) nitrate reacts with barium sulfate, it produces chromium(III) sulfate and barium nitrate.

Cr(NO3)3 + 3BaSO4  ⇢ Cr(SO4)3 + 3BaNO3 

  • When chromium(III) nitrate reacts with iron sulfate, it produces chromium(III) sulfate and iron nitrate.

2Cr(NO3)3 + 3FeSO4   ⇢    3Fe(NO3)2 + Cr2(SO4)3

Uses of Chromium (III) Nitrate

  • Chromium(III) nitrate is used in the manufacture of coatings and surface treatments.  
  • Chromium(III) nitrate is also used as a process controller.  
  • Chromium(III) nitrate is used in the manufacture of car care products.  
  • Chromium(III) nitrate is used to prepare for the manufacture of metal products.  
  • Chromium(III) nitrate is used in the manufacture of paints and coatings. 
  • Chromium(III) nitrate is used in the manufacture of petrochemical products.  
  • Chromium(III) nitrate is used in the manufacture of synthetic dyes and pigments.  

Safety issues

  • It is dangerous in nature because it is an oxidizer.
  • It can cause gastrointestinal damage.
  • It is sensitive to the human body and causes irritation to organs such as the eyes and skin.

Frequently Asked Questions on Chromium III Nitrate

Question 1: What is the molar mass of Chromium III nitrate?

Solution: 

The formula of Chromium III Nitrate is Cr(NO3)3

= 51.9961 + (14.0067 + 15.9994×3)×3

= 238.0108 g/mol.

Question 2: Is Chromium (III) Nitrate soluble or insoluble?

Answer:

Chromium nitrate (Cr (NO3)3) is a crystalline chromium compound that is easily dissolved in water. Some of the synonyms for chromium nitrate are chromium trinitrate non-hydrate, chromium nitrate non-hydrate, chromium nitrate, and chromium nitrate non-hydrate.

Question 3: What is chromium nitrate used for?

Answer:

Chromium nitrate is a light green powder. It is used as a chrome catalyst manufacturing, printing, and corrosion inhibitor.

Question 4: What does III mean in  Chromium (III) Nitrate?

Answer:

In this case, the name of the compound contains the Roman numeral (III). This means that the metal has an oxidation state of +3. In other words, cations carry a 3+ positive charge, chromium (III) cation.

Question 5: Why is nitric acid a powerful oxidizer? 

Answer: 

In the case of nitric acid (HNO3), nitrogen has the highest oxidation state of +5, so it is reduced to oxidize other molecules. Therefore, it acts as an oxidant.

Question 6: Why does nitric acid change the color of the precipitate?  

Answer:

Pure nitric acid is colorless. Nitric acid is so unstable to heat that it decomposes. When they decompose, they form a reddish brown nitrogen dioxide gas. It turns yellow when dissolved in acid.  

Question 7: What are the harmful effects of Chromium (III) nitrate?

Answer:

  • Chromium nitrate can be affected when inhaled.  
  • Contact may irritate the skin and eyes or cause burns. 
  • Inhalation of chromium nitrate can irritate the nose, throat, and lungs and cause coughing, wheezing, and shortness of breath. 
  • Chromium nitrate can cause skin allergies.
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