Central Nervous System
The human body is a type of machine. A machine that is made of different components. Now, there should be some connection between those components. Also, there should be one who can decide on behalf of every organ. Functioning every organ & as well as monitoring them properly is not a simple task. Also, the human body should protect itself from outside threats. All these processes need to be done smoothly. There are some nervous systems are present in the human body to control & maintain all of these. Among all of them, the Central Nervous System (CNS) is the major one.
What is Central Nervous System?
The human body is connected to the nervous system. Every organ in the body is connected with the nerve cell and Neurons. The heart, liver, eye, etc. are also connected using this large connection. Now, there are some commanding organs present in the body, they are situated in the center of these connection bridges. They are the communicating organ or structure that helps to maintain all the organs in the body. They are termed as Central Nervous System.
The CNS is the part of the body that is being studied by scientists most of the time. But still, it holds some secrets in the body. Scientists often wonder by visualizing the capability of the CNS. The CNS is responsible for the heart rate, breathing, etc. Also, helps to control emotion, movement, desire & many more things. Also, this can be stated that all the functions that are going on in the body, are controlled by the Central Nervous System. But there are only two organs present in the CNS. These two organs are capable of maintaining all these functions.
Key Points on Central Nervous System
There are certain important points are present in the Central Nervous System. Before having the parts of the Central Nervous System & function of it, there is a need to look at these key points related to the Central Nervous System. These key points help to bring basic background knowledge of the Central Nervous System. There are mainly 10 key points present that need to be looked at.
- Central Nervous System is made up with the help of the Brain & Spinal Cord.
- Central Nervous System is the starting point of the neural network of the body. All the neurons that lie as a network in the body meet together in the Central Nervous System.
- The Central Nervous System is responsible for controlling all emotions of the body. As well as it controls every function in the body.
- The Central Nervous System is made up with the help of millions of neurons. In the brain itself, there are 100 million neurons are present.
- The brain consumes most of the energy processed by the body. As well as brain is responsible for the consumption of more oxygen.
- Brian can be divided into four lobes. All these four lobes simultaneously work to assist other functions of the body.
- The spinal cord is responsible for the reflex action of the body. So, the Central Nervous System is the controller of reflex actions.
- Central Nervous System is the controller of the involuntary actions of the body. Involuntary actions like breathing are controlled by the Central Nervous System.
- All the voluntary actions of the body are also controlled by Central Nervous System. This includes walking, eating, etc.
- Other than the brain & spinal cord, there are also some more parts present in the Central Nervous System that also assist the functionality of the CNS.
Parts & Structure of Central Nervous System
The Central Nervous System is made of two different organs. Other than these two organs, there are several nerve cells, some specific regions, and some special cells present. Those also can be termed as the parts of the Central Nervous System. But the major two organs are the Brain & Spinal Cord. Both of them help to do most of the takes executed by the Central Nervous System.
Brain & It’s Component
The brain is the most complex organ in the body. The brain is situated in the skull. The skull helps to guard the brain. The brain has the outermost region known as the cerebral cortex. It has 33 billion neurons present there. Along with that, there are several neurons are present in the internal of some of the brains. Likely there are 100 billion neurons are present in the brain. The brain uses 20% of body energy to perform its task.
The brain lies in the center of the Central Nervous System. It uses most of the oxygen that is taken by the body. It is connected with several neurons. These neurons are connected to different organs. It helps them to maintain the function of the organs. There are four lobes or components present in the Brain. Every component of the brain has its specific task. Also, these components are the main driving force in the brain. The collaborative work of these components helps to maintain the function of the brain. These components are:
- Temporal Lobe: This is the special lobe in the brain. This lobe is situated on the front side of the brain. It is placed in the lower side of the brain. This region helps to record the sensory inputs. And it helps to provide the meaning of those sensory inputs. Based on that, it provides certain emotions. This region also helps to maintain the memory of the body. This is also used for language interpretation.
- Occipital Lobe: This lobe is another important lobe. As the name suggests, this lobe is used to maintain the task related to the optical nerve. The optical nerve is used to get vision & it works with the eye. This region is placed at the back side of the brain. This region is situated at the rear side of the Temporal Lobe.
- Parietal Lobe: This lobe is situated just above the Occipital Lobe. This region helps to interpret the sensory inputs from the skin. This also helps to maintain the navigation process. The touch senses are ultimately sent to this lobe. Then this lobe decodes the information. Based on that, it does have some emotion. Also, this lobe helps to make the language.
- Frontal Lobe: This lobe is situated at the front of the brain. Also, this is situated in front of the Parietal Lobe & upper side of the Temporal Lobe. This lobe is used for attention, short memory & planning purpose. This region helps to think factually about the future. This is the most important lobe where dopamine-sensitive neurons are present.
Other Parts Of The Brain
Along with the four lobes, there are also some special regions present in the brain, that also help in the Central Nervous System. Many parts of the brain are present. But those parts can be categorized into three groups. These three groups are the three parts of the brain. They are not the lobe. But they are imaginary groups of the brain. Depending upon the parts, there are three groups:
This is the major part of the brain. The parts belonging to this category are having 2/3rd of the brain area. It is the anterior part of the brain. It develops from the embryonic tube. Three parts belong to this category.
- The Cerebrum: This is the largest part not only in this category. But this is the largest part of the brain. There is a white matter at the center & gray matter in the surroundings. This region helps to do the movements & regulation of temperature in the body. Also, this helps in the thinking, reasoning & judgment process. This region also gets the nerves that help in vision, hearing, touch, etc.
- Thalamus: This is a gland placed at the center of the brain. It helps to receive the signals from the sensory & motor neurons. It helps in the sleep process, awareness & in alertness situations. Also, this got the signals from the cerebral cortex.
- Hypothalamus: This is another gland present in the brain. They belong to the forebrain part. This gland is situated just on the upper side of the brain stem. From the Hypothalamus, several hormones secrete that help to regulate the body. Also, this helps to maintain body temperature, thirst & hunger.
This is not a large part of the brain. The main function of this region is to make a connection between the forebrain & the hindbrain. This is the part of the brain stem. There are three parts are present that belongs to this category.
- Basal Ganglia: This is the region that involves in the voluntary control of motor movements. This helps to find out the response of the motor neuron. This helps to maintain the connection in the brain.
- Corpus Callosum: This is a board band of nerve fibers. This is used to join the right hemisphere & the left hemisphere. This is the largest white matter structure in the body. This helps to communicate with two hemispheres. Depending upon the use of the hand, the size of the hemisphere will be changed.
- Amygdala: These are two almond shape nuclei present in the temporal lobe. These are present in the deep part of the temporal lobe. This helps in decision-making, memory & emotional responses.
This is the lowest part of the brain. This helps to connect the brain with the spinal cord. There are also three parts present in this area. This belongs to some of the brain stem areas. The forebrain is the largest area of the brain. Their task is to communicate with the spinal cord.
- Cerebellum: This is the most important part of the motor neuron function. This helps to decode the motor neuron responses & performs necessary tasks. This helps to interpret the language. If the cerebellum is damaged, then the motor neuron function will be damaged also.
- Medulla: This is the region from where the brain is going to meet with the spinal cord. This region helps to do the involuntary function. Like, this helps us in breathing, vomiting, etc.
- Pons: This is the region from where the cranial nerves are produced. Mainly four cranial nerves are coming out from this region. This region helps with chewing and focuses the visioning process. This region also belongs to the hindbrain part.
The spinal cord is the medium to connect the brain & the body. The nerves that come out from the body, are going to be inserted in the brain using the spinal cord. Not only that spinal cord, helps to do some more takes there. The spinal cord helps to maintain the relationship with the motor neuron. And the Peripheral Nervous System is connected there with the spinal cord. There are 31 spinal nerves are present. Motor responses come from the body & via the spinal cord, it goes to the brain.
The spinal cord also helps to maintain the reflex action of the body. It also does some involuntary actions in the body. Like walking is done by the spinal cord. In absence of the brain spinal cord can also be done to walk any creature. In any case, if the brain so detached from the spinal cord, then the spinal cord spontaneously moves the skeleton muscles. As a result, the creature starts throwing its legs & hands. The brain helps to start & stop any function like walking. In absence of the brain, the stop function of the walk will not be done. So, the brain & spinal cord effectively did that.
Other Parts of the Central Nervous System
Along with the brain & spinal cord, some other parts are also present in the Central Nervous System. Though they are not considered a structure, their influence on the Central Nervous System is unbelievable. They might be a cell but their function is very large.
- White & Gray Matter: White & Gray matter are two types of tissue present in the Central Nervous System. The outer layer of the brain is made of gray matter & the inner layer of the brain is made of white matter. In the white matter, there are the axons are present in the neuron cells. In the gray matter, the rest of the part of the neuron will be situated.
- Glial Cells: These are the cells present in the Central Nervous System. These cells provide support to the neurons of the Central Nervous System. In absence of these cells, the neurons might lose their ability to transfer electrical signals. It helps to repair the neurons if needed. The Peripheral Nervous System also has glial cells.
- Cranial & Spinal Nerve: These are the nerve production areas that go inside the human body. The Cranial nerves are those that are coming out from the brain. There are 12 cranial nerves are present. They come out from the holes in the skull & move to a certain area of the body. There are 31 pairs of spinal nerves are present. They join with the peripheral Nervous System & make a completely complex neural network in the body.
Importance of the Central Nervous System
The importance of the central nervous system can’t be defined in some simple words. The Central Nervous System is responsible for all the functions in the body. It might be a smooth action of the heart, it might be a need of the vision, and all the things are maintained by the Central Nervous System. In absence of it, most of the processes in the body will stop working. As a result, the body will malfunction & eventually die. This is the reason; if any part of the Central Nervous System gets affected severally then there is a very small chance of survival. The brain is considered the most important part of the body. As this is going to be controlled the body function. Central Nervous System helps to build up the neural network in the body. So, the body can share all the information with the Central Nervous System & get resolved.
Difference Between CNS and PNS
|Central Nervous System (CNS)||Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)|
|The Central Nervous System is developed with the help of the Brain & the Spinal Cord.||The Peripheral Nervous System is developed with the help of Sensory Neurons & Motor Neurons.|
|The nerve cells or the neurons involved in the Central Nervous System are relatively short in length.||The nerve cells or the neurons involved in the Peripheral Nervous System are relatively long.|
|Any damage to the Central Nervous System can be lethal to the whole body’s function.||Any damage to the Peripheral Nervous System can be lethal for any local area in the body. The impact will not affect the whole body.|
|If any nerve cells or neurons get damaged in Central Nervous System, it is hard to repair the damage. So, it will have a long effect.||If any nerve cells or neurons get damaged in Peripheral Nervous System, it will quickly repair the damage. So, there will not be any long effect.|
|The main function of the Central Nervous System is to control every function of the body. Even it can control the Peripheral Nervous System. This is the controlling center of the body.||The function of the Peripheral Nervous System is to transfer neural commands from the Central Nervous System to the organ. And it also helps to get the message from the organs to the Central Nervous System.|
Functions of the Central Nervous System
- Maintaining Voluntary Response: The central nervous system helps to function the skeleton muscles. If there is a need to move from any location, the Central Nervous System provides a certain response to the skeleton muscles. As a result, the skeleton muscles start moving. And anybody can change the location. Similarly, if we want to take some food, so it helps to move the hand in such a way that a piece of food is put in the mouth. So all the voluntary responses is being controlled by the Central Nervous System.
- Maintaining Involuntary Response: Like the voluntary response of the body, the central nervous system also helps to maintain the involuntary function of the body. Involuntary function means breathing, vomiting, heartbeat, etc. All these functions are regulated with the help of the Central Nervous System. This nervous system helps to monitor involuntary actions.
- Providing Sense To Body: Central Nervous System helps to provide sense to the body. The human body’s sense depends upon some special inputs. Like, touch, smell, vision, etc. All these powers are provided by the Central Nervous System. The nerves that help to take the smell, touch, and vision are coming out from the Central Nervous System. So, the Central Nervous System gets the response from those organs & provides them with necessary commands by decoding the messages.
- Helps In Reflex Action: The Central Nervous System helps to regulate the reflex action of the body. The reflex action is controlled by the spinal cord in the body. It is the sudden action of the body by which the body can do any spontaneous task. If the body is feeling hot from the fire, then the body will promptly remove the hand from the fire. This is the reflex action controlled by the spinal cord.
- Controlling Of Emotion: The brain in the Central Nervous System helps to control several emotions in the body. Like, laughter, sadness, and sorrow & many other emotions are controlled by the Central Nervous System. Along with that, the Central Nervous System is used to memorize things. The brain helps a lot in this case. Also, some other emotions like hunger and thirst are controlled by the brain under Central Nervous System.
FAQs on Central Nervous System
Question 1: What is Central Nervous System?
The Central Nervous System is the nerve network in the body that helps to regulate nearly every function of the body. The Central Nervous System is made of the brain & the spinal cord. Also, there are millions of nerves are present that regulate the function of the body.
Question 2: What are the four lobes of the brain?
There are four lobes in the brain. They are termed the Temporal Lobe, Occipital Lobe, Parietal Lobe & Frontal Lobe. They all have the necessary significance in controlling the operations of the brain. They all are involved in the Central Nervous System communication process.
Question 3: How many cranial nerves are coming out from the brain?
There are 12 pairs of cranial nerves are present in the body. All these nerves are coming out from the brain using some holes in the skull. This helps to regulate the function of certain organs.
Question 4: How many spinal nerves are coming from the spinal cord?
There are 31 pairs of spinal nerves are present in the body. All these nerves are coming out from the spinal cord & coming to be merged with the Peripheral Nervous System. This help to regulate the function of the motor neurons.
Question 5: Which part of the Central Nervous System is responsible for the reflex action?
The spinal cord is responsible for the reflex action in the body. Reflex action is a certain action provided by the body without getting any command from the Central Nervous System. The brain is not the controller of the reflex action. Rather the spinal cord helps to do that.
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