CBSE Class 12 Political Science Previous Year Question Paper
CBSE Previous Years’ Question Paper for the subject of Political Science is an essential learning source for the preparation of Class 12 Board Examinations. Students can refer to the below question paper, for understanding the question paper pattern. The question papers from the previous years can be collected and practiced by the students during the revision. Certain concepts related to the question paper patterns and marking schemes are cleared by the question paper.
With the help of CBSE Previous Years’ Question Papers for Political Science, the students will understand if they are prepared for the examination completely or not and will be able to examine their knowledge about the subject and gain confidence in answering the question paper. If any mistake is made while formulating the answers, they can concentrate more on such types of questions; so that mistakes can be reduced in the final examinations.
CBSE Class 12 Political Science Previous Year Question Paper With Solutions
Time Allowed: 2 Hours Maximum Marks: 40 Marks
Question 1: (A) Explain any two steps taken by the US that aided the integration of the European States after the Second World War. ( 2*1= 2 Marks)
- The Marshall Plan: US provided economic aid to Western Europe.
- The Truman Doctrine: US provided political, military & economic support to European States.
(B) Explain the ‘Vision 2020’ of the regional organization ‘ASEAN’. ( 2 Marks)
- To encourage negotiations & talks among members over conflicts.
- To promote mutual harmony & cooperation among members.
- To promote & boost political, social, cultural & economic relations among members.
Question 2: Show with the help of any two examples the interference of the military in the administration of Pakistan. (2*1= 2 Marks).
- The Constitution of Pakistan framed by General Ayub Khan took over the administration of the country and also got himself elected. The office was given up by him after popular dissatisfaction.
- Again, General Yahya Khan took over the administration of Pakistan and put it under military rule. Other examples of military rule can be given for Zia-ul-Haq in 1977 and General Pervez Musharraf.
Question 3: Highlight any two reasons for the ethnic conflict in Sri Lanka. (2*1=2 Marks)
The two reasons for the ethnic conflict in Sri Lanka are listed below:
- Sinhala is the majority community and their interests are represented in the politics of Sri Lanka.
- Sinhalas were hostile towards Tamil, who were in minority. Sinhala nationalists were of the view that Sri Lanka shouldn’t be given concessions to Tamil, as Sri Lanka belonged to Sinhalas only.
Question 4: Name any four countries that are included in ‘South Asia’. ( 4*1/2= 2 Marks)
The four countries which were included in “South Asia” are as follows:
India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka & Bangladesh.
Question 5: Analyse any two causes of ‘Globalisation’. ( 2*1=2 Marks)
The two causes of “Globalisation” are as follows:
- Advancement of technology.
- Free & Open markets.
- Fast Means of Transport.
Question 6: Analyze any two reasons for the reason for the split of the Congress Party in 1969. ( 2*1= 2 Marks)
The reasons for the split of the Congress Party in 1969 are as follows:
- Ideological Differences: Leaders within the congress party had contrary views on various issues- especially on the approach to Governance
- Power Struggle: There was a serious power struggle for the authority & leadership in the congress party.
- The conflict between Indira Gandhi and the Syndicate is an important example. In the presidential election of 1969, where the wishes of Indira Gandhi were neglected and N.Sanjeeva Reddy was declared the official candidate, Indira opposed him and supported V.V. Giri, an independent candidate. Finally, V.V. Giri won the election which led to a formal split in Congress.
Question 7: Analyze the concept of “Total Revolution” as visualized by Jai Prakash Narayan in 1975. ( 2*1= 2 Marks)
The concept of “Total Revolution” as visualized by Jai Prakash Narayan is as follows:
- The Revolution sought a transformation of the individual, society, and State.
- The concept encompasses moral, cultural, economic, political, and ecological changes.
- The concept included the right to recall, the importance of village samities, and asking the so-called “upper ke log” to join the struggle for cleaning the politics of India.
Question 8: Why did the first coalition government at the Centre in India not prove to be stable? Analyze the major reason. (2*1= 2 Marks).
The first coalition government at the Centre in India in 1977 did not prove to be stable due to:
- Ideological differences and power struggles among the various parties.
- The Janata Party, which formed the government, was an alliance of parties with different ideologies, and disagreements over policies and leadership led to the government’s collapse.
- The implementation of the recommendations as provided by the Mandal Commission, led to large-scale opposition and violence.
Question 9: Explain any two economic consequences of Globalisation. (2*2=4 Marks)
Globalization has brought numerous economic consequences. The two economic consequences of Globalisation are as follows:
- Free Flowing International Trade: With the removal of trade barriers- tariffs & restrictions, countries have been trading freely & heavily with each other & beyond borders. Countries have also modified & provided relaxation in their economic policies, and, as a result, Investment has become easy for investors across the world.
- Creation of jobs & wealth: With the arrival of Globalisation, there is a sudden increase in the availability of jobs & wealth around the world. One can apply for a job in the US while sitting in India. Plus, with help of technology, productivity & efficacy have also improved. This, in all, has helped people to improve their financial status.
Question 10: Describe any four excesses made by the Union Government during the period of emergency imposed in 1975. (4*1=4 Marks)
During the period of emergency in 1975, Union Government made numerous excesses. A few of them are as follows:
- Press Censorship: The Union Government censored the press as newspapers and magazines were prohibited to publish anything against the government. Journalists & thinkers were arrested for expressing their dissent.
- The arrest of political leaders & activists: Many rival political leaders, social activists & citizens were detained during the emergency. Those who were protesting against Government were arrested without trial. The government also used the Maintenance of Internal Security Act (MISA) for keeping them in custody without any charges.
- Forced Sterilization: Poor men were forced to sterilize as part of a mass population control drive by the Union Government. Especially, the young population was heavily targeted.
- Suspension of fundamental rights: During the emergency, the masses were stripped of their fundamental rights, as, they become null & void. People had no right to appeal to courts & judiciary.
Question 11: Map Question (4*1= 4 Marks)
(i) The State which was not under the rule of the Congress party in 1952.
(C) Jammu & Kashmir
(ii) The State where the Congress party could not win majority in 1967.
(iii) The State from where K. Kamaraj, a veteran leader of Congress Party, lost the election in 1967.
(B) Tamil Nadu
(iv) The State from where the phrase ‘Aaya Ram, Gaya Ram’ originated.
Note: The following questions are for visually impaired candidates only in lieu of Q. No. 11.
Answer the following questions.
11.1 In which year was the first general election completed in India?
11.2 In which State had Congress Party not won a majority in 1957?
11.3 From which state did the phrase “Aaya Ram, Gaya Ram Originate?
11.4 Which political party remained in power at the center from 1952 to 1967?
The Congress Party.
Question 12: (A) Explain any four steps taken by China to develop its economy. ( 4*1/2= 6 Marks)
China has transformed its economy from a poor state to a global economic hub via structured processes & reforms, which are as follows:
- Economic Liberalization: China, 1978, launched the process of economic liberalization via its, “reform & opening-up” policy which has resulted in a massive boost to its economy & GDP.
- Foreign Investments: China though, it’s easing of trade barriers, tax incentives & offering subsidies, has made foreign investors invest at ease. It has attracted big techs & businessmen to install & set up their companies in no time.
- Investment in Infrastructure: China has invested heavily in its infrastructure. From highways to railways to ports, it has significantly improved its infrastructure via modes of connectivity. As well as, it has also paid enough attention to the primary necessities, such as education, health & research.
- Promoting Exports: China has been promoting exports, thanks to its domestic manufacturing capacity. Also, it has been paying enough attention to developing industries at the domestic level by providing tax subsidies & incentives to manufacturers & young entrepreneurs.
(B) Explain any four factors that make the European Union a strong organization. (4*1/2= 6 Marks)
European Union has emerged as a strong organization due to the following:
- Economic cooperation & integration: EU, via its common currency & single market has paved the way for greater economic cooperation among members. Further, it has also provided the free movement of goods & services by removing trade barriers. This has helped massively to boost the economies of member countries in the EU.
- Political cooperation: EU, via its dialogue forum, has built consensus on many political issues among member countries. It has also helped to reduce the rift among countries & has provided a forum to negotiate, discuss & implement reforms by creating political institutions within the large realm of it.
- Promoting Peace & shared values: EU, over a period of time, has been successful in promoting peace, harmony & shared values. It has been paying attention to democracy, human rights as well as shared culture & customs.
- Stability & Security: EU, consisting of 27 countries, has been expanding regularly. And, this has been one of the major reasons for the stability & security in Europe. Further, it has been able to keep up the democratic norms up to the mark.
Q13: (A) Highlight any three areas where consensus has emerged among most of the political parties in India after 1989. (3*2= 6 Marks)
After 1989, there have been many areas where consensus has emerged among most of the political parties in India; Few of them are as follows:
- Economic Liberalization: Since the great economic reforms of 1991, there has been enough attention to economic liberalization by all Union Governments to date. The consensus on the removal of trade barriers, end of license raj permit & offering tax incentives to investors has been broadly accepted by all political parties & has resulted in significant progress in the Indian economy.
- Foreign Policy: India, irrespective of who is in power, has been exercising its foreign policy very well, to the changing dimensions of global politics. Interestingly, the end of the Cold War, which resulted in the disintegration of the USSR, has not severely impacted India’s relationship dynamics with either of USA or Russia. It has been enjoying a great spell of friendship with major power blocs & has been successful in dealing with them.
- National Security: India has been a long-standing victim of terrorism as it has been through many horrific terrorist attacks. India has been fighting against it & Naxalism (on the domestic front). And, on this issue of national security, a consensus has emerged among all parties for the need for a well-trained military & armed forces to combat these threats.
(B) Highlight any two major changes that took place in Indian politics after 2014 and also name any two welfare programs that made women the real beneficiaries. ( 2*2+2*1= 6 Marks)
After 2014, significant changes have taken place; Two of them are as follows:
- Rise of BJP: In the 2014 general elections, the Bhartiya Janata Party (BJP) came to power with a thumping majority. It ousted the Congress-led UPA, which could only be managed to get 60 seats in comparison to the BJP-led NDA’s 336 seats. Since then, the BJP, riding on the face of PM Narendra Modi, has been successful to hold its forte. In the 2019 elections, it did even better by winning 352 seats bettering its past tally of 2014. Talks of one-party dominance have started gaining space again.
- Mass reach of Public Welfare Schemes: BJP, has been implementing, public welfare schemes- PM Jan Dhan Yojana, PM Mudra Yojana, PM Ujjwala Yojana, etc. and has successfully implemented these schemes. According to experts, these schemes were very much instrumental in BJP’s 2019 victory.
Welfare Programmes for women:
- Beti Bachao, Beti Padhao: This scheme was launched in 2015 & was aimed at the empowerment, promotion, education & development of girls. The government provides scholarships & incentives to girls.
- Pradhan Mantri Ujjwala Yojana: This scheme was launched in 2016, with the aim to provide better cooking fuel to women, especially in rural households. This scheme provides free LPG connections to households.
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