Class 12 Syllabus 2023-24 Session has been released by the Central Board of Secondary Education. CBSE Class 12 syllabus includes a few modifications in certain subjects, keeping in mind the changes in the modern educational context and the latest developments in various fields. Students are advised to review the syllabus carefully to have a clear understanding of every subject and prepare accordingly for their board exams.
CBSE Class 12 Syllabus for the academic year 2023-2024 is a comprehensive guide that provides a structured approach to learning. By following this syllabus can understand in-depth and prepare themselves for future studies. We Covered all Class 12th subjects such as Mathematics, Science, Social Science, Languages, and Skill-Based Subjects along with other topics which make students well-equipped to pursue higher studies and excel further in their future careers.
Let’s take a Detailed look at the CBSE Class 12th Syllabus for the Academic year 2023-24.
CBSE Class 12 Syllabus 2023-24: List of Subjects
Students of Class 12 under CBSE have to prepare for the following subjects:
CBSE Class 12 Syllabus 2023-24: List of Subjects
CBSE Syllabus for Class 12 English
CBSE Syllabus for Class 12 Computer Science
CBSE Syllabus for Class 12 Maths
CBSE Syllabus for Class 12 Economics
CBSE Syllabus for Class 12 Physics
CBSE Syllabus for Class 12 Geography
CBSE Syllabus for Class 12 Chemistry
CBSE Syllabus for Class 12 History
CBSE Syllabus for Class 12 Biology
CBSE Syllabus for Class 12 Informatics
CBSE Syllabus for Class 12 Hindi
CBSE Syllabus for Class 12 Political Science
CBSE Syllabus for Class 12 Accountancy
CBSE Syllabus for Class 12 Psychology
CBSE Syllabus for Class 12 Business Studies
CBSE Syllabus for Class 12 Sociology
Class 12 English (Core) Syllabus 2023-24
Students are expected to have a sufficient level of language ability in English by the time they enter class XII, and the course primarily focuses on developing higher-order language abilities. For many students, the higher secondary stage will serve as a preparation for university, where a high level of English proficiency may be necessary. For another majority of cases, however, the higher secondary level may serve as a preparation for professional admission. The Core Course should cater to both groups by promoting academic language skills as well as workplace language skills.
CBSE Class 12 English Core Detailed Syllabus:
Section A: Reading Comprehension through Unseen Passage (18 Marks)
One unseen passage to assess comprehension, interpretation inference, and vocabulary. The passage may be factual, descriptive, or literary.
One unseen case-based passage with verbal/visual inputs like statistical data, charts, etc.
Note: The combined word limit for both passages will be 600-750.
Multiple Choice Questions / Objective Type Questions will be asked. (10+8 = 18 Marks)
Note Making and Summarization based on a passage of approximately 200-250 words.
Numbering and indenting: 1
Summary (up to 50 words): 3 Marks
Questions on Gap filling (Tenses, Clauses)
Questions on re-ordering/transformation of sentences (Total seven questions to be done out of the eight given).
Creative Writing Skills
Short writing task – Classified Advertisements up to 50 words. One out of the two given questions to be answered (3 Marks: Format: 1 / Content: 1 / Expression: 1)
Short writing task –Poster up to 50 words. One out of the two given questions is to be answered.(3marks: Format: 1 / Content: 1 / Expression: 1)
Writing a Speech in 120-150 words based on verbal/visual cues related to some contemporary / age-appropriate topic.
Writing a Debate based on visual/verbal inputs in 120-150 words. The theme should be contemporary topical issues. One out of the two given questions is to be answered. (5 Marks: Format: 1 / Content: 2 / Expression: 2)
Section 1: Reference to the Context
One Poetry extracts out of two from the book Hornbill to assess comprehension, interpretation, analysis and appreciation. (3××1=3 Marks)
One Prose extract out of two from the book Hornbill to assess comprehension, interpretation, analysis and appreciation. (3××1=3 Marks)
One prose extracts out of two from the book Snapshots to assess comprehension, interpretation and analysis. (4××1=4 Marks)
Section 2: Two Short answer type questions (one from Prose and one from Poetry from the book Hornbill), out of four, to be answered in 40-50 words. Questions should elicit inferential responses through critical thinking. (3××2=6 Marks)
Section 3: One Short answer type question, from the book Snapshots, to be answered In 40- 50 words. Questions should elicit inferential responses through critical thinking. Any 1 out of 2 questions to be done. (3××1=3 Marks)
Section 4: One Long answer type question, from Prose/Poetry Hornbill, to be answered in 120-150 words. Questions can be based on incident/theme/passage/extract/event as reference points to assess extrapolation beyond and across the text. The question will elicit an analytical and evaluative response from the student. Any 1 out of 2 questions to be done. (1××6=6 Marks)
Section 5: One Long answer type question, based on the chapters from the book Snapshots to be answered in 120-150 words to assess global comprehension and extrapolation beyond the text. Questions to provide evaluative and analytical responses using incidents, events, and themes as reference points. Any 1 out of 2 questions to be done. (1××6=6 Marks)
This section will have a variety of assessment items including Multiple Choice Questions, Objective Type Questions, Short Answer Type Questions and Long Answer Type Questions to assess comprehension, analysis, interpretation and extrapolation beyond the text.
Class 12 Maths Syllabus 2023-24
Class 12 Maths curriculum is the foundation course for various competitive exams like JEE, NEET, Olympiads, etc. Therefore, GeeksforGeeks presented all the concepts covered in various numbers of the article that covers the whole syllabus of CBSE class 12 Maths in detail, along with every chapter categorized into relevant topics prescribed by the CBSE board and as per the syllabus given in NCERT Class 12 Maths textbooks.
The Physics Syllabus has changed over time to reflect the evolution of the subject and the changing needs of society. Senior Secondary is a stepping stone for students who want to pursue higher education in Physics or pursue professional courses such as Engineering, Physical and Biological Science, Commerce, or Computer Applications.
The current revised syllabus was created in accordance with the National Curriculum Framework 2005 and the guidelines provided by the Focus Group on Teaching of Physics in 2005, with the goal of meeting the evolving needs of all student groups. Greater emphasis has been placed on the application of various concepts, which has been motivated by real-life situations and other subject areas.
The Chemistry Syllabus has changed over time to reflect the evolution of the subject and the changing needs of society. Senior Secondary is a stepping stone for students who want to pursue higher education in Chemistry or pursue professional courses such as Engineering, Physical and Biological Science, Commerce, or Computer Applications. The current revised syllabus was created in accordance with the National Curriculum Framework 2005 and the guidelines provided by the Focus Group on Teaching of Chemistry in 2005, with the goal of meeting the evolving needs of all student groups. Greater emphasis has been placed on the application of various concepts, which has been motivated by real-life situations and other subject areas.
The Biology Syllabus has changed over time to reflect the evolution of the subject and the changing needs of society. Senior Secondary is a stepping stone for students who want to pursue higher education in Biology or pursue professional courses such as Engineering, Physical and Biological Science, Commerce, or Computer Applications. The current revised syllabus was created in accordance with the National Curriculum Framework 2005 and the guidelines provided by the Focus Group on Teaching of Biology in 2005, with the goal of meeting the evolving needs of all student groups. Greater emphasis has been placed on the application of various concepts, which has been motivated by real-life situations and other subject areas.
Degradation By Improper Resource Utilisation And Maintenance
One Major Experiment 5
One Minor Experiment 2 & 3
Slide Preparation 1, & 4
Practical Record + Viva Voce
(Credit to the student’s work over the academic session may be given)
Investigatory Project and its Project Record + Viva Voce
A. List of Experiments 60 Periods
Prepare a temporary mount to observe pollen germination.
Study the plant population density by quadrat method.
Study the plant population frequency by quadrat method.
Prepare a temporary mount of the onion root tip to study mitosis.
Isolate DNA from available plant material such as spinach, green pea seeds, papaya, etc.
B. Careful observation of the following (Spotting)
Flowers adapted to pollination by different agencies (wind, insects, birds).
Pollen germination on stigma through a permanent slide or scanning electron micrograph.
Identification of stages of gamete development, i.e., T.S. of testis and T.S. of ovary through permanent slides (from grasshopper/mice).
Meiosis in onion bud cells or grasshopper testis through permanent slides.
T.S. of blastula through permanent slides (Mammalian).
Mendelian inheritance uses seeds of different colours/sizes of any plant.
Prepared pedigree charts of any one of the genetic traits such as rolling of tongue, blood groups, ear lobes, widow’s peak and colourblindness.
Controlled pollination – emasculation, tagging and bagging.
Common disease-causing organisms like Ascaris, Entamoeba, Plasmodium, and any fungus-causing ringworm through permanent slides, models or virtual images. Comment on symptoms of diseases that they cause.
Two plants and two animals (models/virtual images) were found in xeric conditions. Comment upon their morphological adaptations.
Two plants and two animals (models/virtual images) were found in aquatic conditions. Comment upon their morphological adaptations.
Class 12 Accountancy Syllabus 2023-24
Accountancy is a practice through which business transactions are recorded, classified, and reported for the proper and successful running of an organization. The detailed syllabus of Accountancy class 12 covers every important topic like Accounting for Non-for-Profit Organisations, Partnership, Admission of a Partner, Retirement of a Partner, Issue of Shares, Issue of Debentures, Financial Statements of a Company, Cash Flow Statement, Computerised Accounting of a Company and so on.
CBSE Class 12 Accountancy Detailed Syllabus:
PART – A (ACCOUNTING FOR PARTNERSHIP FIRMS AND COMPANIES)
Chapter 1: Accounting for Non-for-Profit Organization
Accounting for Non-for-Profit Organization: Introduction
Financial Statement of Not-for-Profit Organization: Receipt and Payment Account
Chapter 2: Accounting Application of Electronic Spreadsheet
Concept of Electronic Spreadsheet
Features offered by Electronic Spreadsheet
Application in generating accounting information: Bank Reconciliation Statement, Asset Accounting, Loan Repayment of Loan Schedule, and Ratio Analysis
Data Representation: Graphs, Charts, and Diagrams
Chapter 3: Using a Computerised Accounting System
Steps in the installation of CAS, codification and Hierarchy of account heads, creation of accounts
Data: Entry, Validation and Verification
Adjusting Entries, Preparation of Balance Sheet, Profit and Loss Account with Opening and Closing Entries
Need and Security features of the system
Class 12 Business Studies Syllabus 2023-24
Business Studies is a study of how to control and manage an organization effectively and efficiently. The detailed syllabus of Class 12 Business Studies covers every important topic, like Functions of Management, Principles of Management, Marketing, Stock Exchange, Training, Recruiting, Planning, and many more.
CBSE Class 12 Business Studies detailed Syllabus:
Part A: Principles and Functions of Management
Unit 1: Nature and Significance of Management
Management – concept, objectives, and importance
Management as Science, Art and Profession
Levels of Management
Management functions-planning, organizing, staffing, directing and controlling
Coordination- concept and importance
Unit 2: Principles of Management
Principles of Management- concept and significance
Fayol’s principles of management
Taylor’s Scientific management- principles and techniques
Unit 3: Business Environment
Business Environment- concept and importance
Dimensions of Business Environment-Economic, Social, Technological, Political and Legal
Demonetization – concept and features
Unit 4: Planning
Concept, importance and limitation
Single-use and standing plans. Objectives, Strategy, Policy, Procedure, method Rule, budget and Programme
Unit 5: Organising
Concept and importance
Structure of organisation- functional and divisional concept. Formal and informal organisation- concept
Delegation: concept, elements and importance
Decentralization: concept and importance
Unit 6: Staffing
Concept and importance of staffing
Staffing as a part of the
Human Resource Management concept
Selection – process
Training and Development – Concept and importance, Methods of training – on the job and off the job – vestibule training, apprenticeship training and internship training
Unit 7: Directing
Concept and importance
Elements of Directing
Motivation – concept, Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, Financial and non-financial incentives
Leadership – concept, styles – authoritative, democratic and laissez-faire
Communication – concept, formal and informal communication; barriers to effective communication, how to overcome the barriers
Unit 8: Controlling
Controlling – Concept and importance
Relationship between planning and controlling
Steps in process of control
Part B: Business Finance and Marketing
Unit 9: Financial Management
Concept, role and objectives of Financial Management
Financial decisions: investment, financing and dividend- Meaning and factors affecting
Financial Planning – concept and importance
Capital Structure – concept and factors affecting capital structure
Fixed and Working Capital – Concept and factors affecting their requirements
Unit 10: Financial Markets
Financial Markets: Concept
Money Market: Concept
Capital market and its types (primary and secondary)
Stock Exchange – Functions and trading procedure
Securities and Exchange Board of India (SEBI) – objectives and functions
Unit 11: Marketing
Marketing – Concept, functions and philosophies
Marketing Mix – Concept and elements
Product – branding, labelling and packaging – Concept
Price – Concept, Factors determining price
Physical Distribution – concept, components and channels of distribution
Promotion – Concept and elements; Advertising, Personal Selling, Sales Promotion and Public Relations
Unit 12: Consumer Protection
Concept and importance of consumer protection
The Consumer Protection Act, 2019:
Meaning of consumer Rights and responsibilities of consumers
Who can file a complaint?
Consumer awareness – Role of consumer organizations and Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs)
Unit 13: Project Work
It Includes all practical work and Projects.
Class 12 Computer Science Syllabus 2023-24
CBSE Class 12 Computer Science Detailed Syllabus:
Unit I: Computational Thinking and Programming
Revision of Python topics covered in Class XI.
Functions: types of function (built-in functions, functions defined in module, user-defined functions), creating user-defined function, arguments and parameters, default parameters, positional parameters, function returning value(s), flow of execution, scope of a variable (global scope, local scope)
Introduction to files, types of files (Text file, Binary file, CSV file), relative and absolute paths
Text file: opening a text file, text file open modes (r, r+, w, w+, a, a+), closing a text file, opening a file using with clause, writing/appending data to a text file using write() and writelines(), reading from a text file using read(), readline() and readlines(), seek and tell methods, manipulation of data in a text file
Binary file: basic operations on a binary file: open using file open modes (rb, rb+, wb, wb+, ab, ab+), close a binary file, import pickle module, dump() and load() method, read, write/create, search, append and update operations in a binary file
CSV file: import csv module, open / close csv file, write into a csv file using csv.writer() and read from a csv file using csv.reader( )
Data Structure: Stack, operations on stack (push & pop), implementation of stack using list.
Unit II: Computer Networks
Evolution of Networking: introduction to computer networks, the evolution of networking (ARPANET, NSFNET, INTERNET)
Structured Query Language: introduction, Data Definition Language and Data Manipulation Language, data type (char(n), varchar(n), int, float, date), constraints (not null, unique, primary key), create database, use database, show databases, drop database, show tables, create table, describe table, alter table (add and remove an attribute, add and remove primary key), drop table, insert, delete, select, operators (mathematical, relational and logical), aliasing, distinct clause, where clause, in, between, order by, meaning of null, is null, is not null, like, update command, delete command, aggregate functions (max, min, avg, sum, count), group by, having clause, joins: cartesian product on two tables, equi-join and natural join
2. A stub program with Python SQL connectivity must be provided with blanks (4 blanks) to be filled by the student with the desired SQL query.
Report file: (i) Minimum 15 Python programs. (ii) SQL Queries – Minimum 5 sets using one table / two tables. (iii) Minimum 4 programs based on Python – SQL connectivity
Project (using concepts learnt in Classes 11 and 12)
Suggested Practical List:
Read a text file line by line and display each word separated by a #.
Read a text file and display the number of vowels/consonants/uppercase/lowercase characters in the file.
Remove all the lines that contain the character ‘a’ in a file and write it to another file.
Create a binary file with the name and roll number. Search for a given roll number and display the name, if not found display an appropriate message.
Create a binary file with roll number, name and marks. Input a roll number and update the marks.
Write a random number generator that generates random numbers between 1 and 6 (simulates a dice).
Write a Python program to implement a stack using the list.
Create a CSV file by entering user-id and password, and read and search the password for the given user id.
Implements the following SQL commands on the student table:
ALTER table to add new attributes/modify data type/drop attribute
UPDATE table to modify data
ORDER By to display data in ascending/descending order o DELETE to remove tuple(s)
GROUP BY and find the min, max, sum, count and average
A similar exercise may be framed for other cases.
Integrate SQL with Python by importing suitable modules.
Suggested Reading Material for Computer Science
NCERT Textbook for COMPUTER SCIENCE (Class XII)
Support Materials on the CBSE website.
At Last, Make Computer Science Projects.
Class 12 Economics Syllabus 2023-24
CBSE Class 12 Economics Detailed Syllabus:
Part A: Introductory Macroeconomics
Unit 1: National Income and Related Aggregates (30 Periods)
What is Macroeconomics?
Basic concepts in macroeconomics: consumption goods, capital goods, final goods, intermediate goods; stocks and flows; gross investment, and depreciation.
Circular flow of income (two-sector model); Methods of calculating National Income – Value Added or Product method, Expenditure method, Income method.
Aggregates related to National Income
Gross National Product (GNP)
Net National Product (NNP)
Gross Domestic Product (GDP)
Net Domestic Product (NDP)
Real and Nominal GDP
GDP and Welfare
Unit 2: Money and Banking (15 Periods)
Money – meaning and functions, supply of money – Currency held by the public and net demand deposits held by commercial banks.
Money creation by the commercial banking system.
Central bank and its functions
Bank of issue
Control of Credit through Bank Rate
Reverse Repo Rate
Open Market Operations
Unit 3: Determination of Income and Employment (30 Periods)
Aggregate demand and its components
Propensity to consume and propensity to save (average and marginal)
Short-run equilibrium output
Investment multiplier and its mechanism
Meaning of full employment and involuntary unemployment.
Problems of excess demand and deficient demand; measures to correct them – changes in government spending
Unit 4: Government Budget and the Economy (17 Periods)
Government budget – meaning, objectives, and components
Classification of receipts – revenue receipts and capital receipts;
Classification of expenditure – revenue expenditure and capital expenditure
Balanced, Surplus, and Deficit Budget – measures of government deficit.
Unit 5: Balance of Payments (18 Periods)
Balance of payments account – meaning and components
Balance of payments – Surplus and Deficit
Foreign exchange rate – meaning of fixed and flexible rates and managed floating
Determination of exchange rate in a free market, Merits and demerits of flexible and fixed exchange rate
Managed Floating exchange rate system
Unit 6: Development Experience (1947-90): (28 Periods) – Part A
A brief introduction of the state of the Indian economy on the eve of independence.
Indian economic system
Common goals of Five-Year Plans.
Main features, problems, and policies of agriculture (institutional aspects and new agricultural strategy)
Industry (IPR 1956; SSI – role & importance)
Part B: Indian Economic Development
Unit 6(Part B): Economic Reforms since 1991:
Features and appraisals of liberalisation
Privatization (LPG policy)
Concepts of demonetization
Unit 7: Current challenges facing Indian Economy (60 Periods)
Human Capital Formation: How people become a resource
Role of human capital in economic development
Growth of the Education Sector in India
Rural development: Key issues – credit and marketing – the role of cooperatives
Alternative farming – organic farming
Employment: Growth and changes in the workforce participation rate in formal and informal sectors
Problems and policies
Sustainable Economic Development: Meaning, Effects of Economic Development on Resources and Environment, including global warming
Unit 8: Development Experience of India: (12 Periods)
A comparison with neighbours
India and Pakistan
India and China
Issues: economic growth, population, sectoral development, and other Human Development Indicators
Class 12 Geography Syllabus 2023-24
CBSE Class 12 Geography Detailed Syllabus
Part A: Fundamentals of Human Geography (90 Periods)
Unit 1: Human Geography: Nature and Scope (07 Periods)
The Naturalisation of Humans and Humanisation of Nature
Human Geography through the Corridors of Time
Fields and Sub-fields of Human Geography
Unit 2: People (20 Periods)
The World Population- distribution, density and Growth
Population change – Components of population change, Demographic Transition
Human development – concept; selected indicators, international comparisons
Unit 3: Human Activities (32 Periods)
Primary activities – concept and changing trends; gathering, pastoral, mining, subsistence agriculture, modern agriculture; people engaged in agricultural and allied activities – some examples from selected countries
Secondary activities- concept; manufacturing: types – household, small scale, large scale; agro-based and mineral-based industries;
Tertiary activities – concept; trade, transport and tourism; services; people engaged in tertiary activities
Quaternary activities- concept; people engaged in quaternary activities – a case study from selected countries
Unit 4: Transport, Communication and Trade (26 Periods)
Land transport – roads, railways; transcontinental railways Water transport- inland waterways; major ocean routes
Air transport- Intercontinental air routes Oil and gas pipelines
Satellite communication and cyberspace importance and usage for geographical information; use of GPS
International trade- bases and changing patterns; ports as gateways of international trade; the role of WTO in international trade
Map Work on the identification of features based on 1-5 units on the outline
Physical/Political map of the World (05 Periods)
Part B: India: People and Economy (90 Periods)
Unit 6: People (15 Periods)
Population: distribution, density and growth; composition of the population – linguistic, religious; sex, rural-urban and occupational-regional variations in the growth of population
Unit 7: Human Settlements (10 Periods)
Rural settlements – types and distribution
Urban settlements – types, distribution and functional classification
Unit 8: Resources and Development (30 Periods)
Land resources- general land use; agricultural land use; geographical conditions and distribution of major crops (Wheat, Rice, Tea, Coffee, Cotton, Jute, Sugarcane and Rubber); agricultural development and problems
Water resources-availability and utilization irrigation, domestic, industrial and other uses; scarcity of water and conservation methods-rain water harvesting and watershed management
Mineral and energy resources- distribution of metallic (Iron ore, Copper, Bauxite, Manganese); non-metallic (Mica, Salt) minerals; conventional (Coal, Petroleum, Natural gas and Hydroelectricity) and non-conventional energy sources (solar, wind, biogas) and conservation
Planning in India- target group area planning (case study); the idea of sustainable development (case study)
Unit 9: Transport, Communication and International Trade (15 Periods)
Transport and communication-roads, railways, waterways and airways: oil and gas pipelines; Geographical information and communication networks
International trade- changing pattern of India’s foreign trade; seaports and their hinterland and airports
Unit 10: Geographical Perspective on selected issues and Problems (15 Periods)
Environmental pollution; urban-waste disposal
Urbanization, rural-urban migration; problems of slums
Map work on locating and labelling of features based on the above units on an outline map of India (05 Periods)
Part C: Practical Work in Geography Part II (40 Periods)
Unit 1: Processing of Data and Thematic Mapping (25 Periods)
Type and Sources of data: Primary, Secondary and other sources
Tabulating and processing of data; calculation of averages, measures of central tendency
Representation of data- construction of diagrams: bars, circles and flowchart; thematic maps; construction of dot; choropleth and isopleths maps
Unit 2: Spatial Information Technology (15 Periods)
Introduction to GIS; hardware requirements and software modules; data formats; raster and vector data, data input, editing and topology building; data analysis; overlay and buffer.
Class 12 History Syllabus 2023-24
CBSE Class 12 History Detailed Syllabus:
PART – I
Chapter 1: Bricks, Beads and Bones: The Harappan Civilization
Broad overview: Early urban centres
Story of discovery: Harappan civilization
Excerpt: Archaeological report on a major site
Discussion: How it has been utilized by archaeologists/ historians
Chapter 2: Kings, Farmers and Towns: Early States and Economies
Broad overview: Political and economic
History from the Mauryan to the Gupta period
Story of discovery: Inscriptions and the Decipherment of the script.
Shifts in the Understanding of political and economic history.
Excerpt: Ashokan inscription and Gupta period land grant
Discussion: Interpretation of inscriptions by historians.
Chapter 3: Kinship, Caste And Class: Early Societies
Social Histories: Using the Mahabharata Issues in social history, including caste, class, kinship and gender
Story of discovery: Transmission and publications of the Mahabharat
Excerpt: from the Mahabharata, illustrating how it has been used by historians.
Discussion: Other sources for reconstructing social history.
Chapter 4: Thinkers, Bliefes and Buildings: Cultural Developments
A History of Buddhism: Sanchi Stupa
A brief review of religious histories of Vedic religion, Jainism, Vaishnavism, Shaivism (Puranic Hinduism)
Focus on Buddhism
Story of discovery: Sanchi stupa
Excerpt: Reproduction of sculptures from Sanchi
Discussion: Ways in which sculpture has been interpreted by historians, and other sources for reconstructing the history of Buddhism.
Chapter 5: Through the Eyes of Travellers: Perceptions of Society
Broad Overview: outlines of social and cultural life as they appear in the traveller’s account
Story of their writings: A discussion of where they travelled, what they wrote and for whom they wrote.
Excerpts: from Al Biruni, Ibn Battuta, Francois Bernier.
Discussion: What these travel accounts can tell us and how they have been interpreted by historians?
Chapter 6: Bhakti–Sufi Traditions: Changes in Religious Beliefs and Devotional Texts
Broad overview: Outline of religious developments during this period saints.
Ideas and practices of the Bhakti-Sufi
Story of Transmission: How Bhakti-Sufi compositions have been preserved.
Excerpt: Extracts from selected Bhakti-Sufi works.
Discussion: Ways in which these have been interpreted by historians.
Chapter 7: An Imperial Capital: Vijayanagara
Broad Over View: New Architecture: Hampi
Outline of new buildings during Vijayanagar period-temples, forts, irrigation facilities.
Relationship between architecture and the political system
Story of Discovery: Account of how Hampi was found.
Excerpt: Visuals of buildings at Hampi
Discussion: Ways in which historians have analyzed and interpreted these structures.
Chapter 8: Peasants, Zamindars and the State: Agrarian Society and the Mughal Empire
Broad overview: The Aini-Akbari
Structure of agrarian relations in the 16th and 17th centuries
Patterns of change over the period
Story of Discovery: Account of the compilation and translation of Ain I Akbari
Excerpt: from the Ain-i-Akbari
Discussion: Ways in which historians have used texts to reconstruct history.
Chapter 9: Kings and Chronicles: The Mughal Courts
The Mughals and Their Empire
Different Chronicles of Mughals
The Paintings of the Mughal Period
Historical Text of Mughals: Akbar Nama and the Badshah Nama
The Ideal Kingdom of the Mughal Empire
Capitals and Courts of the Mughals
The Mughal Household
The Officials in Mughal Administration
Jesuit Missionaries in the Mughal Court
Akbar’s Quest for Religion
Chapter 10: Colonialism and the Countryside: Exploring Official Archives
Colonialism and Rural Society: Evidence from Official Reports
Life of zamindars, peasants and artisans in the late18th century
Permanent Settlement, Santhals and Paharias
Story of official records: An account of why official Investigations into rural societies were undertaken and the types of records and reports produced.
Excerpts: From Fifth Report
Discussion: What do the official records tell and do not tell, and how they have been used by historians?
Chapter 11: Rebels and the Raj: 1857 Revolt and its Representations
The events of1857-58
Vision of Unity
How these events were recorded and narrated.
Excerpts: Pictures of 1857. Extracts from contemporary accounts.
Discussion: How the pictures of 1857 shaped British opinion of what had happened.
Chapter 12: Mahatma Gandhi and the Nationalist Movement: Civil Disobedience and Beyond
The Nationalist Movement 1918 -48
The nature of Gandhian politics and leadership.
Focus: Mahatma Gandhi and the three movements and his last days as “finest hours”
Excerpts: Reports from English and Indian language newspapers and other contemporary writings.
Discussion: How newspapers can be a source of history
Chapter 13: Framing the Constitution: The Beginning of a New Era
The Making of the Constitution an overview
Independence and then a new nation-state.
The making of the Constitution
Focus: The Constituent Assembly Debates
Excerpts: from the debates
Discussion: What do such debates reveal and how they can be analyzed?
CBSE Class 12 Informatics Practices Detailed Syllabus:
Unit 1: Data Handling using Pandas
Introduction to Python libraries- Pandas, Matplotlib
Data structures in Pandas – Series and Data Frames.
Series: Creation of Series from – ndarray, dictionary, scalar value; mathematical operations; Head and Tail functions; Selection, Indexing and Slicing.
Data Frames: creation – from the dictionary of Series, list of dictionaries, Text/CSV files; display; iteration; Operations on rows and columns: add, select, delete, rename; Head and Tail functions; Indexing using Labels, Boolean Indexing
Importing/Exporting Data between CSV files and Data Frames
Purpose of plotting; drawing and saving the following types of plots using Matplotlib – line plot, bar graph, histogram
Customizing plots: adding label, title, and legend in plots.
Unit 2: Database Query using SQL
Math functions: POWER (), ROUND (), MOD ().
Text functions: UCASE ()/UPPER (), LCASE ()/LOWER (), MID ()/SUBSTRING ()/SUBSTR (), LENGTH (), LEFT (), RIGHT (), INSTR (), LTRIM (), RTRIM (), TRIM ().
Date Functions: NOW (), DATE (), MONTH (), MONTHNAME (), YEAR (), DAY (), DAYNAME ().
Aggregate Functions: MAX (), MIN (), AVG (), SUM (), COUNT (); using COUNT (*).
Querying and manipulating data using Group by, Having, and Order by.
Unit 3: Introduction to Computer Networks
Introduction to networks, Types of network: LAN, MAN, WAN.
Introduction to Internet, URL, WWW, and its applications- Web, email, Chat, VoIP.
Website: Introduction, the difference between a website and a webpage, static vs dynamic web page, web server and hosting of a website.
Web Browsers: Introduction, commonly used browsers, browser settings, add-ons and plug-ins, cookies.
Unit 4: Societal Impacts
Digital footprint, net and communication etiquettes, data protection, intellectual property rights (IPR), plagiarism, licensing and copyright, free and open source software (FOSS), cybercrime and cyber laws, hacking, phishing, cyberbullying, an overview of Indian IT Act.
E-waste: hazards and management.
Awareness about health concerns related to the usage of technology.
The aim of the class project is to create tangible and useful IT applications. The learner may identify a real-world problem by exploring the environment. e.g. Students can visit shops/business places, communities or other organizations in their localities and enquire about the functioning of the organization, and how data are generated, stored, and managed. The learner can take data stored in CSV or database files and analyze using Python libraries and generate appropriate charts to visualize. If an organization is maintaining data offline, then the learner should create a database using MySQL and store the data in tables. Data can be imported into Pandas for analysis and visualization. Learners can use Python libraries of their choice to develop software for their school or any other social good. Learners should be sensitized to avoid plagiarism and violation of copyright issues while working on projects. Teachers should take the necessary measures for this. Any resources (data, images etc.) used in the project must be suitably referenced. The project can be done individually or in groups of 2 to 3 students. The project should be started by students at least 6 months before the submission deadline.
Class 12 Political Science Syllabus 2023-24
CBSE Class 12 Political Science Detailed Syllabus:
Part A: Contemporary World Politics
Chapter 1: The End of Bipolarity (22 Periods)
The disintegration of the Soviet Union
Unipolar World, Middle East Crisis – Afghanistan
Democratization – CIS and the 21st Century (Arab Spring).
Chapter 2: New Centres of Power (18 Periods)
Organizations: European Union, ASEAN, SAARC, BRICS.
Nations: Russia, China, Israel, India.
Chapter 3: Contemporary South Asia (18 Periods)
Conflicts and efforts for Peace and Democratization in South Asia: Pakistan, Nepal, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Maldives.
Chapter 4: United Nations and its Organizations (10 Periods)
Principle Organs, Key Agencies: UNESCO, UNICEF, WHO, ILO, Security Council and the Need for its Expansion.
Chapter 5:Security in Contemporary World (12 Periods)
Security: Meaning and Types; Terrorism.
Chapter 6: Environment and Natural Resources (12 Periods)
Conservation of Natural Resources.
Chapter 7: Globalization (12 Periods)
Part B: Politics in India Since Independence
Chapter 8: Challenges of Nation-Building (16 Periods)
Nation and Nation Building,
Sardar Vallabh Bhai Patel and Integration of States,
Legacy of Partition: Challenge of Refugee, Resettlement,
Nehru’s Approach to Nation–Building,
Political Conflicts over Language and Linguistic Organization of States.
Chapter 9: Planned Development (8 Periods)
Changing nature of India’s Economic Development,
Planning Commission and Five-year Plans,
National Development Council, NITI Aayog.
Chapter 10: India’s Foreign Policy (20 Periods)
Principles of Foreign Policy;
India’s Changing Relations with Other Nations: US, Russia, China, Israel;
India’s Relations with its Neighbours: Pakistan, Bangladesh, Nepal, Sri Lanka and Myanmar;
India’s Nuclear Programme.
Chapter 11: Parties and the Party Systems in India (30 Periods)
Multi-party Coalition System.
Chapter 12: Democratic Resurgence (30 Periods)
Jai Prakash Narayan and Total Revolution,
Ram Manohar Lohia and Socialism,
Deendayal Upadhyaya and Integral Humanism,
Democratic Upsurges – Participation of the Adults, Backwards and Youth.
Chapter 12: Regional Aspirations (36Periods)
Rise of Regional Parties,
The Kashmir issue,
Movements for Autonomy.
Chapter 13: Indian Politics: Recent Trends and Developments (36 Periods)
Era of Coalitions: National Front,
United Progressive Alliance [UPA] – I & II,
National Democratic Alliance [NDA] – I, II, III & IV,
Issues of Development and Governance.
Class 12 Psychology Syllabus 2023-24
CBSE Class 12 Psychology detailed Syllabus
Chapter 1: Variations in Psychological Attributes
Individual Differences in Human Functioning
Assessment of Psychological Attributes
Psychometric Theories of Intelligence, Information Processing Theory: Planning, Attention-arousal and Simultaneous successive Model of Intelligence, Triarchic Theory of Intelligence; Theory of Multiple Intelligences.
Individual Differences in Intelligence
Culture and Intelligence
Special Abilities: Aptitude: Nature and Measurement
Chapter 2: Self and Personality
Self and Personality
Concept of Self
Cognitive and Behavioural Aspects of Self
Culture and Self
Concept of Personality
Major Approaches to the Study of Personality
Psychodynamic Approach and Post-Freudian Approaches
Assessment of Personality
Chapter 3: Meeting Life Challenges
Nature, Types and Sources of Stress
Effects of Stress on Psychological Functioning and Health
Stress and Health
General Adaptation Syndrome
Stress and Immune System
Coping with Stress
Stress Management Techniques
Promoting Positive Health and Well-being
Chapter 4: Psychological Disorders
Concepts of Abnormality and Psychological Disorders
Classification of Psychological Disorders
Factors Underlying Abnormal Behaviour
Major Psychological Disorders
Obsessive-Compulsive and Related Disorders
Trauma-and Stressor-Related Disorders
Somatic Symptoms and Related Disorders
Bipolar and Related Disorders
Schizophrenia Spectrum and Other Psychotic Disorders
Disruptive, Impulse-Control and Conduct Disorders
Feeding and Eating Disorders
Substance-Related and Addictive Disorders
Chapter 5: Therapeutic Approaches
Nature and Process of Psychotherapy
Types of Therapies
Factors contributing to healing in psychotherapy
Ethics in Psychotherapy
Rehabilitation of the Mentally Ill
Chapter 6: Attitude and Social Cognition
Explaining Social Behaviour
Nature and Components of Attitudes
Attitude Formation and Change
Prejudice and Discrimination
Strategies for Handling Prejudice
Chapter 7: Social Influence and Group Processes
Nature and Formation of Groups
Type of Groups
Influence of Group on Individual Behaviour
CBSE Class 12 Sociology Syllabus 2023-24
CBSE Class 12 Sociology Detailed Syllabus
Part-A. INDIAN SOCIETY
Unit 1: Introducing Indian Society (0 Periods)
Colonialism, Nationalism, Class and Community (Non-evaluative)
Unit 2: The Demographic Structure of the Indian Society (10 Periods)
Theories and Concepts in Demography
Rural-Urban Linkages and Divisions
Population Policy in India
Unit 3: Social Institutions: Continuity and Change (12 Periods)
Caste and the Caste System
Family and Kinship
Unit 5: Patterns of Social Inequality and Exclusion (18 Periods)
Social Inequality and Social Exclusion
Systems Justifying and Perpetuating Inequality – Caste, Tribe, the Other Backward Classes
The Struggle for Women’s Equality and Rights
The Struggles of the Differently Abled
Unit 6: The Challenges of Cultural Diversity (22 Periods)
Cultural communities and the nation-state
Regionalism in the Indian Context
The Nation-state and religion-related issues and identities
Different Kinds of Social Change: Sanskritisation, Westernization, Modernization, Secularization
Unit 11: Change and Development in Rural Society (10 Periods)
Agrarian Structure: Caste & Class in Rural India
Land Reforms, Green Revolution and Emerging Agrarian Society
Green Revolution and its social consequences
Transformation in Rural Society
Circulation of labour
Globalization, Liberalization and Rural Society
Unit 12: Change and Development in Industrial Society (12 Periods)
From Planned Industrialization to Liberalization
How people find Jobs
Work Processes: How work is carried out, working conditions, home-based work, Strikes and Unions
Unit 15: Social Movements (18 Periods)
Concept of Social Movements
Theories and Classification of Social Movements
Class-Based Movements: Workers, Peasants
Caste-Based Movements: Dalit Movement, Backward Class/Castes, Trends in Upper Caste Responses
Women’s Movements in Independent India
Advantages of Knowing CBSE Class 12 Syllabus
CBSE Class 12 Syllabus provides a clear roadmap for preparing for the board exams.
The syllabus not only outlines the course structure and marks distribution but also focuses on a student’s overall growth and development through the CCE system.
CBSE Class 12 Syllabus, students can plan their studies effectively, identify their strengths and weaknesses, and work towards achieving their goals.
It is essential for students to thoroughly prepare for the exams, keeping in mind the prescribed content, and practising regularly to perform well in the Class 12 board exams.
CBSE Class 12 Syllabus is an essential part of a student’s academic journey as it sets the foundation for higher studies and future career prospects. The latest Class 12 NCERT Syllabus covers major subjects like Mathematics, Science, Social Science, Languages, and Skill-Based subjects, providing students with a diverse and holistic learning experience. It is crucial for students to go through the CBSE Class 12 Syllabus and gain an understanding of the topics they will be studying to plan their studies effectively and prepare for the exams. Our guide on CBSE Class 12 Syllabus aims to assist students in navigating the syllabus and provide them with a detailed overview of the course content, evaluation scheme, and other essential information.
FAQs on CBSE Class 12 Syllabus 2023-2024
Q1: What is NCERT Class 12 Syllabus?
The CBSE Class 12 Syllabus is a comprehensive document that lists all the topics and concepts that students need to study in each subject during the academic year.
Q2: Where can I download the CBSE Class 12 Syllabus for free?
You can download the CBSE Class 12 Syllabus from the official website of the Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) or from other educational websites.
Q3: Is class 12 maths the same as commerce and science?
No, the CBSE Class 12 Syllabus differs according to the stream the student has opted for, such as Science, Commerce, or Humanities.
Q4: What are the main subjects in CBSE Class 12?
The CBSE Class 12 Syllabus covers major subjects such as Mathematics, Physics, Accounts, Social Science, Languages, and Skill-Based subjects.
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