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C Program to Find the Longest Bitonic Subsequence

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  • Last Updated : 21 Dec, 2021
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Given an array arr[0 … n-1] containing n positive integers, a subsequence of arr[] is called Bitonic if it is first increasing, then decreasing. Write a function that takes an array as argument and returns the length of the longest bitonic subsequence. 
A sequence, sorted in increasing order is considered Bitonic with the decreasing part as empty. Similarly, decreasing order sequence is considered Bitonic with the increasing part as empty. 
Examples:

Input arr[] = {1, 11, 2, 10, 4, 5, 2, 1};
Output: 6 (A Longest Bitonic Subsequence of length 6 is 1, 2, 10, 4, 2, 1)

Input arr[] = {12, 11, 40, 5, 3, 1}
Output: 5 (A Longest Bitonic Subsequence of length 5 is 12, 11, 5, 3, 1)

Input arr[] = {80, 60, 30, 40, 20, 10}
Output: 5 (A Longest Bitonic Subsequence of length 5 is 80, 60, 30, 20, 10)

Source: Microsoft Interview Question
 

Solution 
This problem is a variation of standard Longest Increasing Subsequence (LIS) problem. Let the input array be arr[] of length n. We need to construct two arrays lis[] and lds[] using Dynamic Programming solution of LIS problem. lis[i] stores the length of the Longest Increasing subsequence ending with arr[i]. lds[i] stores the length of the longest Decreasing subsequence starting from arr[i]. Finally, we need to return the max value of lis[i] + lds[i] – 1 where i is from 0 to n-1.
Following is the implementation of the above Dynamic Programming solution. 
 

C




/* Dynamic Programming implementation of longest bitonic subsequence problem */
#include<stdio.h>
#include<stdlib.h>
  
/* lbs() returns the length of the Longest Bitonic Subsequence in
    arr[] of size n. The function mainly creates two temporary arrays
    lis[] and lds[] and returns the maximum lis[i] + lds[i] - 1.
  
    lis[i] ==> Longest Increasing subsequence ending with arr[i]
    lds[i] ==> Longest decreasing subsequence starting with arr[i]
*/
int lbs( int arr[], int n )
{
   int i, j;
  
   /* Allocate memory for LIS[] and initialize LIS values as 1 for
      all indexes */
   int *lis = new int[n];
   for (i = 0; i < n; i++)
      lis[i] = 1;
  
   /* Compute LIS values from left to right */
   for (i = 1; i < n; i++)
      for (j = 0; j < i; j++)
         if (arr[i] > arr[j] && lis[i] < lis[j] + 1)
            lis[i] = lis[j] + 1;
  
   /* Allocate memory for lds and initialize LDS values for
      all indexes */
   int *lds = new int [n];
   for (i = 0; i < n; i++)
      lds[i] = 1;
  
   /* Compute LDS values from right to left */
   for (i = n-2; i >= 0; i--)
      for (j = n-1; j > i; j--)
         if (arr[i] > arr[j] && lds[i] < lds[j] + 1)
            lds[i] = lds[j] + 1;
  
  
   /* Return the maximum value of lis[i] + lds[i] - 1*/
   int max = lis[0] + lds[0] - 1;
   for (i = 1; i < n; i++)
     if (lis[i] + lds[i] - 1 > max)
         max = lis[i] + lds[i] - 1;
   return max;
}
  
/* Driver program to test above function */
int main()
{
  int arr[] = {0, 8, 4, 12, 2, 10, 6, 14, 1, 9, 5,
              13, 3, 11, 7, 15};
  int n = sizeof(arr)/sizeof(arr[0]);
  printf("Length of LBS is %d
", lbs( arr, n ) );
  return 0;
}


Output: 

 Length of LBS is 7

Time Complexity: O(n^2) 
Auxiliary Space: O(n)
 

Please refer complete article on Longest Bitonic Subsequence | DP-15 for more details!


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