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Butan-1-Ol Formula

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  • Last Updated : 14 Sep, 2022
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Butan-1-Ol is also termed 1-Butanol or n-butanol or n-butyl alcohol. It is a primary alcohol with the chemical formula C4H9OH that has a four-carbon structure. It has a linear structure with four carbon atoms, ten hydrogen atoms, and one oxygen atom. n-Butanol occurs naturally as a minor byproduct of the fermentation of sugars and carbohydrates. It is also present in many foods and drinks. Isobutanol, butan-2-ol, and tert-butanol are the isomers of butan-1-ol. It is a colourless and refractive liquid that has a harsh, mildly alcoholic, sweet, and banana-like odour. Small amounts of Butan-1-ol are produced in humans by gut microbes. It is used in organic chemical synthesis, plasticizers, detergents, etc.

Structure of Butan-1-Ol

Butan-1-ol is a short-chain primary fatty alcohol and an alkyl alcohol chemical or molecular formula is C4H10O (or) C4H9OH, and its expanded form is CH3(CH2)3OH (or) CH3CH2CH2CH2OH.

Butan-1-Ol structure

Butan-1-Ol structure

Butanol has mainly four isomeric structures, which are formed by changing the position of the OH group or changing the positions of carbon atoms that are joined to each other. Isobutanol, butan-2-ol, and tert-butanol are isomers of 1-butanol. 2-Butan-2-ol is a straight-chain isomer with the OH group at an internal carbon, isobutanol is a branched isomer with the OH group at a terminal carbon, and tert-butanol is a branched isomer with the OH group at the internal carbon.

Butan-1ol isomers

Butan-1ol isomers

Preparation of Butan-1-Ol

In the past, crotonaldehyde which was formed from acetaldehyde was used to produce butanol. It can also be produced by fermentation of glycerol, mannite, starches, and sugars in general by using bacteria like Bacillus butylicus. It can also be produced by using Clostridium acetobutylicum in industrial fermentation.

The main commercial source of 1-butanol is n-butyraldehyde, which can be formed through the oxo-reaction of propylene. In this process, a mixture of n and isobutyraldehyde is formed. This mixture can be either separated initially and the individual isomers of the aldehyde hydrogenated, or this mixture of isomeric aldehydes can be hydrogenated directly and the resultant mixture of the n-and isobutyl alcohol is separated by distillation.

Butan-1-Ol preparation

Butan-1-Ol preparation

Butan-1-Ol can also be produced by another method that involves the Reppe reaction of propylene with CO and water.

CH3CH=CH2 + H2O + 2CO → CH3CH2CH2CH2OH + CO2

Properties of Butan-1-Ol

 Chemical formula 

C4H10O (or) C4H9OH

IUPAC name

Butan-1-Ol

 Molecular weight/Molar mass 

 74.123 g/mol 

Appearance

 Colourless, refractive liquid 

Odor

 harsh, mildly alcoholic, sweet, and banana-like odour 

Boiling point

117.7 °C

Melting point

 −89.8 °C

Density

 0.81 g/cm3

Solubility

 Easily soluble in acetone and miscible with ethanol, ethyl ether

Acidity (pKa)

16.10 

Refractive index

  1.3993 (20 °C)

Dipole moment

1.66 D

Other Experimental Properties and Reactions

  • When Butan-1-Ol is combusted with oxygen, it produces carbon dioxide and water.

C4H9OH + 6O2 → 4CO2 + 5H2O

  • Butanol reacts with acidified potassium dichromate to produce butanoic acid, where acidified potassium dichromate acts as an oxidizing agent and oxidizes butanol to butanoic acid.

 

  • When Butan-1-ol is treated with hydrogen chloride, it produces 1-Chlorobutane.

CH3(CH2)3OH + HCl → CH3(CH2)3Cl + H2O

  • When Butan-1-ol is treated with hydrobromic acid, it produces 1-Bromobutane.

CH3(CH2)3OH + HBr → CH3(CH2)3Br + H2O

Uses of Butan-1-Ol

Butan-1-ol is mainly used in the manufacturing of varnishes. It is used as a solvent and as a chemical intermediate. It is used as an artificial flavouring agent to prepare baked goods, candies, ice cream, butter, cream, fruit, whiskey, and rum. It is also used as a solvent in surface coatings, paints, lacquers, varnishes, natural and synthetic resins, gums, vegetable oils, dyes, and alkaloids. It has been suggested as an alternative to diesel fuel and gasoline. Butanol is also used in many household and commercial products such as arts & crafts, cleaning products, household care, metal polish, lamp oil or lighter fuel, coating solvents, pesticides, etc.

Hazards

Butan-1-Ol is a highly flammable liquid and vapour that will be easily ignited by heat, sparks, or flames. Its vapours form mixtures with air that are explosive in nature. It is acutely toxic, so it is harmful if swallowed. Contact with Butan-1-Ol may cause skin and eye irritation. Exposure to high concentrations of Butan-1-Ol may cause drowsiness and respiratory irritations, and can also cause central nervous system depression.

FAQs on Butan-1-Ol Formula

Question 1: What is Butan-1-Ol?

Answer:

1-Butanol is also termed Butan-1-Ol or n-butanol or n-butyl alcohol. It is a primary alcohol with the chemical formula C4H9OH that has a four-carbon structure. It has a linear structure with four carbon atoms, ten hydrogen atoms, and one oxygen atom. n-Butanol occurs naturally as a minor byproduct of the fermentation of sugars and carbohydrates.

Question 2: What are the isomers of Butan-1-Ol?

Answer:

Butanol has mainly four isomeric structures, which are formed by changing the position of the OH group or changing the positions of carbon atoms that are joined to each other. Isobutanol, butan-2-ol, and tert-butanol are isomers of 1-butanol. 2-Butan-2-ol is a straight-chain isomer with the OH group at an internal carbon, isobutanol is a branched isomer with the OH group at a terminal carbon, and tert-butanol is a branched isomer with the OH group at the internal carbon.

Question 3: Calculate the molar mass of Butan-1-Ol.

Answer:

The chemical formula of Butan-1-Ol is C4H10O.

The atomic weight of each hydrogen atom = 1.00794 g/mol

The atomic weight of each Carbon atom = 12.0107 g/mol

The atomic weight of each oxygen atom = 15.999 g/mol

So, the molar mass of Butan-1-Ol = 4 × 12.0107 + 10×1.00794 + 15.9994

= 48.0428 + 10.0794 + 15.9994 =  74.1216 g/mol.

Therefore, the molar mass of 1-Butanol is 74.1216 g/mol.

Question 4: How is Butan-1-Ol prepared?

Answer:

The main commercial source of 1-butanol is n-butyraldehyde, which can be formed through the oxo-reaction of propylene. Butan-1-Ol can also be produced by another method that involves the Reppe reaction of propylene with CO and water. In the past, crotonaldehyde that was formed from acetaldehyde was used to produce butanol. It can also be produced by fermentation of glycerol, mannite, starches, and sugars in general by using bacteria like Bacillus butylicus. It can also be produced by using Clostridium acetobutylicum in industrial fermentation.

Question 5: Mention some properties of Butan-1-Ol.

Answer:

1-Butanol is also termed Butan-1-Ol or n-butanol or n-butyl alcohol, whose chemical or molecular formula is C4H10O (or) C4H9OH. It is a colorless and refractive liquid that has a harsh, mildly alcoholic, sweet, and banana-like odor. The molar mass of Butan-1-Ol is 74.123 g/mol. It is soluble in water. It is easily soluble in acetone and miscible with ethanol and ethyl ether.

Question 6: What are the uses of Butan-1-Ol?

Answer:

Butan-1-ol is mainly used in the manufacturing of varnishes. It has a lot of uses as a solvent and as a chemical intermediate. It is used as an artificial flavoring agent in the preparation of baked goods, candies, ice cream, butter, cream, fruit, whiskey, and rum. It is also used as a solvent in surface coatings, paints, lacquers, varnishes, natural and synthetic resins, gums, vegetable oils, dyes, and alkaloids.

Question 7: Mention some hazards of Butan-1-Ol.

Answer:

Butan-1-Ol is a highly flammable liquid and vapor that will be easily ignited by heat, sparks, or flames. Its vapors may form explosive mixtures with air. It is acutely toxic, so it is harmful if swallowed. Contact with Butan-1-Ol may cause skin and eye irritation. Exposure to high concentrations of Butan-1-Ol may cause drowsiness and respiratory irritations, and can also cause central nervous system depression. 


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