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BST to a Tree with sum of all smaller keys

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  • Difficulty Level : Easy
  • Last Updated : 17 Aug, 2022
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Given a Binary Search Tree(BST), convert it to a Binary Tree such that every key of the original BST is changed to key plus sum of all smaller keys in BST.
Given a BST with N Nodes we have to convert into Binary Tree 

 

Given above BST with N=5 Nodes. The values at Node being 9, 6, 15, 3, 21
Binary Tree after conversion 

 

Binary Tree after conversion, the values at Node being 18, 9, 33, 3, 54

Solution: We will perform a regular Inorder traversal in which we keep track of sum of Nodes visited. Let this sum be sum. The Node which is being visited, add that key of Node to sum i.e. sum = sum + Node->key. Change the key of current Node to sum i.e. Node->key = sum
When a BST is being traversed in inorder, for every key currently being visited, all keys that are already visited are all smaller keys. 

Implementation:

C++




// Program to change a BST to Binary Tree such
// that key of a Node becomes original key plus
// sum of all smaller keys in BST
#include <bits/stdc++.h>
 
/* A BST Node has key, left child and
   right child */
struct Node {
    int key;
    struct Node* left;
    struct Node* right;
};
 
/* Helper function that allocates a new
   node with the given key and NULL left
   and right pointers.*/
struct Node* newNode(int key)
{
    struct Node* node = new Node;
    node->key = key;
    node->left = NULL;
    node->right = NULL;
    return (node);
}
 
// A recursive function that traverses the
// given BST in inorder and for every key,
// adds all smaller keys to it
void addSmallerUtil(struct Node* root, int* sum)
{
    // Base Case
    if (root == NULL)
        return;
 
    // Recur for left subtree first so that
    // sum of all smaller Nodes is stored
    addSmallerUtil(root->left, sum);
 
    // Update the value at sum
    *sum = *sum + root->key;
 
    // Update key of this Node
    root->key = *sum;
 
    // Recur for right subtree so that
    // the updated sum is added
    // to greater Nodes
    addSmallerUtil(root->right, sum);
}
 
// A wrapper over addSmallerUtil(). It
// initializes sum and calls addSmallerUtil()
// to recursively update and use value of
void addSmaller(struct Node* root)
{
    int sum = 0;
    addSmallerUtil(root, &sum);
}
 
// A utility function to print inorder
// traversal of Binary Tree
void printInorder(struct Node* node)
{
    if (node == NULL)
        return;
    printInorder(node->left);
    printf("%d ", node->key);
    printInorder(node->right);
}
 
// Driver program to test above function
int main()
{
    /* Create following BST
            9
            / \
        6     15 */
    Node* root = newNode(9);
    root->left = newNode(6);
    root->right = newNode(15);
 
    printf(" Original BST\n");
    printInorder(root);
 
    addSmaller(root);
 
    printf("\n BST To Binary Tree\n");
    printInorder(root);
 
    return 0;
}


Java




// Java program to convert BST to binary tree
// such that sum of all smaller keys is added
// to every key
 
class Node {
 
    int data;
    Node left, right;
 
    Node(int d)
    {
        data = d;
        left = right = null;
    }
}
 
class Sum {
 
    int addvalue = 0;
}
 
class BSTtoBinaryTree {
 
    static Node root;
    Sum add = new Sum();
 
    // A recursive function that traverses
    // the given BST in inorder and for every
    // key, adds all smaller keys to it
    void addSmallerUtil(Node node, Sum sum)
    {
 
        // Base Case
        if (node == null) {
            return;
        }
 
        // Recur for left subtree first so that
        //  sum of all smaller Nodes is stored at sum
        addSmallerUtil(node.left, sum);
 
        // Update the value at sum
        sum.addvalue = sum.addvalue + node.data;
 
        // Update key of this Node
        node.data = sum.addvalue;
 
        // Recur for right subtree so that the
        // updated sum is added to greater Nodes
        addSmallerUtil(node.right, sum);
    }
 
    // A wrapper over addSmallerUtil().  It
    // initializes addvalue and calls
    // addSmallerUtil() to recursively update
    // and use value of addvalue
    Node addSmaller(Node node)
    {
        addSmallerUtil(node, add);
        return node;
    }
 
    // A utility function to print inorder
    // traversal of Binary Tree
    void printInorder(Node node)
    {
        if (node == null) {
            return;
        }
        printInorder(node.left);
        System.out.print(node.data + " ");
        printInorder(node.right);
    }
 
    // Driver program to test the above functions
    public static void main(String[] args)
    {
        BSTtoBinaryTree tree = new BSTtoBinaryTree();
        tree.root = new Node(9);
        tree.root.left = new Node(6);
        tree.root.right = new Node(15);
 
        System.out.println("Original BST");
        tree.printInorder(root);
        Node Node = tree.addSmaller(root);
        System.out.println("");
        System.out.println("BST To Binary Tree");
        tree.printInorder(Node);
    }
}


Python3




# Program to change a BST to Binary Tree
# such that key of a Node becomes original
# key plus sum of all smaller keys in BST
 
# A BST node has key, left child
# and right child */
class Node:
 
    # Constructor to create a new node
    def __init__(self, data):
        self.key = data
        self.left = None
        self.right = None
 
# A recursive function that traverses the
# given BST in inorder and for every key,
# adds all smaller keys to it
def addSmallerUtil(root, Sum):
     
    # Base Case
    if root == None:
        return
 
    # Recur for left subtree first so that
    # sum of all smaller Nodes is stored
    addSmallerUtil(root.left, Sum)
 
    # Update the value at sum
    Sum[0] = Sum[0] + root.key
 
    # Update key of this Node
    root.key = Sum[0]
 
    # Recur for right subtree so
    # that the updated sum is
    # added to greater Nodes
    addSmallerUtil(root.right, Sum)
 
# A wrapper over addSmallerUtil(). It
# initializes sum and calls addSmallerUtil()
# to recursively update and use value of
def addSmaller(root):
    Sum = [0]
    addSmallerUtil(root, Sum)
     
# A utility function to print
# inorder traversal of Binary Tree
def printInorder(node):
    if node == None:
        return
    printInorder(node.left)
    print(node.key, end = " ")
    printInorder(node.right)
 
# Driver Code
if __name__ == '__main__':
     
    # Create following BST
    #         9
    #     / \
    #     6     15
    root = Node(9)
    root.left = Node(6)
    root.right = Node(15)
 
    print("Original BST")
    printInorder(root)
    print()
    addSmaller(root)
 
    print("BST To Binary Tree")
    printInorder(root)
 
# This code is contributed by PranchalK


C#




using System;
 
// C#  program to convert BST to binary tree 
// such that sum of all smaller keys is added 
// to every key
 
public class Node
{
 
    public int data;
    public Node left, right;
 
    public Node(int d)
    {
        data = d;
        left = right = null;
    }
}
 
public class Sum
{
 
    public int addvalue = 0;
}
 
public class BSTtoBinaryTree
{
 
    public static Node root;
    public Sum add = new Sum();
 
    // A recursive function that traverses 
    // the given BST in inorder and for every 
    // key, adds all smaller keys to it
    public virtual void addSmallerUtil(Node node, Sum sum)
    {
 
        // Base Case
        if (node == null)
        {
            return;
        }
 
        // Recur for left subtree first so that
        //  sum of all smaller Nodes is stored at sum
        addSmallerUtil(node.left, sum);
 
        // Update the value at sum
        sum.addvalue = sum.addvalue + node.data;
 
        // Update key of this Node
        node.data = sum.addvalue;
 
        // Recur for right subtree so that the 
        // updated sum is added to greater Nodes
        addSmallerUtil(node.right, sum);
    }
 
    // A wrapper over addSmallerUtil().  It 
    // initializes addvalue and calls
    // addSmallerUtil() to recursively update 
    // and use value of addvalue
    public virtual Node addSmaller(Node node)
    {
        addSmallerUtil(node, add);
        return node;
    }
 
    // A utility function to print inorder
    // traversal of Binary Tree
    public virtual void printInorder(Node node)
    {
        if (node == null)
        {
            return;
        }
        printInorder(node.left);
        Console.Write(node.data + " ");
        printInorder(node.right);
    }
 
    // Driver program to test the above functions
    public static void Main(string[] args)
    {
        BSTtoBinaryTree tree = new BSTtoBinaryTree();
        BSTtoBinaryTree.root = new Node(9);
        BSTtoBinaryTree.root.left = new Node(6);
        BSTtoBinaryTree.root.right = new Node(15);
 
        Console.WriteLine("Original BST");
        tree.printInorder(root);
        Node Node = tree.addSmaller(root);
        Console.WriteLine("");
        Console.WriteLine("BST To Binary Tree");
        tree.printInorder(Node);
    }
}
 
  // This code is contributed by Shrikant13


Javascript




<script>
 
// Javascript  program to convert BST to binary tree 
// such that sum of all smaller keys is added 
// to every key
class Node
{
 
    constructor(d)
    {
        this.data = d;
        this.left = null;
        this.right = null;
    }
}
 
class Sum
{
    constructor()
    {
        this.addvalue = 0;
    }
}
 
var root = null;
var add = new Sum();
 
// A recursive function that traverses 
// the given BST in inorder and for every 
// key, adds all smaller keys to it
function addSmallerUtil(node, sum)
{
    // Base Case
    if (node == null)
    {
        return;
    }
     
    // Recur for left subtree first so that
    //  sum of all smaller Nodes is stored at sum
    addSmallerUtil(node.left, sum);
     
    // Update the value at sum
    sum.addvalue = sum.addvalue + node.data;
     
    // Update key of this Node
    node.data = sum.addvalue;
     
    // Recur for right subtree so that the 
    // updated sum is added to greater Nodes
    addSmallerUtil(node.right, sum);
}
 
// A wrapper over addSmallerUtil().  It 
// initializes addvalue and calls
// addSmallerUtil() to recursively update 
// and use value of addvalue
function addSmaller(node)
{
    addSmallerUtil(node, add);
    return node;
}
 
// A utility function to print inorder
// traversal of Binary Tree
function printInorder(node)
{
    if (node == null)
    {
        return;
    }
    printInorder(node.left);
    document.write(node.data + " ");
    printInorder(node.right);
}
 
// Driver program to test the above functions
root = new Node(9);
root.left = new Node(6);
root.right = new Node(15);
document.write("Original BST<br>");
printInorder(root);
var node = addSmaller(root);
document.write("<br>");
document.write("BST To Binary Tree<br>");
printInorder(node);
 
// This code is contributed by itsok.
</script>


Output

 Original BST
6 9 15 
 BST To Binary Tree
6 15 30 

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