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At present how many Fundamental Duties are in the Constitution of India?

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  • Difficulty Level : Expert
  • Last Updated : 13 Jun, 2022
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Fundamental duties are enshrined in Part IVA of the Indian Constitution under Article 51(A). When the Constitution was drafted, fundamental duties were not part of the Constitution. They were added on the recommendations given by the Swaran Singh Committee. These duties were taken from the Constitution of Russia. 42nd Amendment Act, 1976 added 10 fundamental duties in the Constitution. Later on, with the passing of the 86th Amendment in 2002 one more duty was added to the list which makes them 11 in total. These duties are non-justiciable in nature and no legal sanction can be imposed on their violation. They are confined to Indian citizens only.
As human beings enjoy fundamental rights that are listed in Part-III of the Constitution, similarly fundamental duties are moral obligations of the citizens. Both rights and duties go hand in hand. Moral obligations need to be fulfilled if a citizen wants to enjoy his rights to the fullest.

Fundamental Duties:

Below mentioned duties are enumerated in the Constitution –
1) We should respect our National flag, National Anthem, ideals, and institutions and abide by our Constitution.
2) We should follow and cherish the noble ideals that inspired our struggle for freedom.
3) We should protect and uphold the sovereignty, unity, and integrity of India.
4) We should defend our country and provide national service when asked for it.
5) We should promote harmony and the spirit of common brotherhood amongst every citizen without thinking about religious, linguistic, regional, or sectional diversities and should not do anything that is derogatory to the dignity of women.
6) We should value and preserve the rich heritage of our composite culture.
7) We should protect and improve the natural environment that comprises forests, lakes, rivers, and wildlife and be kind and compassionate towards all living creatures. 
8) We should develop the scientific temper, humanism, and the spirit of inquiry and reform.
9) We should safeguard public property and reject violence.
10) We should constantly move towards excellence in all spheres of individual and collective activity so that the nation constantly progresses.
11) The Children between the age of six to fourteen years should get opportunities for education provided by their parents or guardian as the case may be.

Significance of Fundamental Duties

  • They help in reminding the citizens of India of their duties towards the society, nation, and other fellow beings.
  • They keep the citizens away from anti-national and anti-social activities by warning them.
  • They encourage citizens and inspire them to be disciplined and committed.
  • The constitutional validity of the law is determined with the help of duties by keeping them in mind while making judgments.

Criticism of Fundamental Duties

  • Some of the fundamental duties are ambiguous and vague for a common man to understand like the term “composite culture”.
  • Fundamental duties violations cannot be questioned in the Court of law.
  • Some critics find these duties as “unnecessary” which need not be mentioned in the Constitution.
  • These duties are non-exhaustive as they do not mention the other important duties like casting vote, etc.

Frequently Asked Questions with Answers:

Q1. How many Fundamental Duties are there in the Constitution?
Answer: Eleven fundamental duties are there in the Constitution. These duties were taken from the Constitution of Russia.

Q2. Which Article consists of Fundamental Duties?
Answer: Fundamental duties are enshrined in Part 4(A) of the Indian Constitution under Article 51(A).

Q3. Are Fundamental Duties justiciable?
Answer: These duties are non-justiciable in nature and no legal sanction can be imposed on their violation. They are confined to Indian citizens only.

Q4. Describe the significance of fundamental duties.
Answer: Significance of fundamental duties is as follows-
1) They help in reminding the citizens of India of their duties towards the society, the Nation, and other fellow beings.
2) They keep the citizens away from anti-national and anti-social activities by warning them.
3) They encourage citizens and inspire them to be disciplined and committed.
4) Constitutional validity of the law is determined with the help of duties by keeping them in mind while making judgments.

Q5. Which Fundamental Duty was added in 2002?
Answer: The Children between the age of six to fourteen years should get opportunities for education provided by their parents or guardian as the case may be. With the passing of the 86th Amendment in 2002, this duty was added to the list which makes them 11 in total.

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