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Animal Cell

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  • Difficulty Level : Expert
  • Last Updated : 19 Sep, 2022
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A form of eukaryotic cell known as an animal cell lacks a cell wall and has a genuine nucleus that is membrane-bound in addition to other cellular organelles. Animal cells can be as little as a few microns or as large as a few millimeters. The ostrich egg, which can measure more than 5.1 inches across and weighs over 1.4 kilos, is the largest known animal cell. The average neuron in the human body is only 100 microns across, which is a stark contrast to this.

Animal cells can also vary in shape; some are flat, while others are oval or rod-shaped. Intriguing shapes including curved, spherical, concave, and rectangular are also available. Only a microscope can view the majority of the cells because of their minuscule size. Animal cells are eukaryotic cells with a membrane-bound nucleus, as was previously mentioned. Additionally, the nucleus of these cells shows evidence of DNA. They also include other cellular structures and membrane-bound organelles that perform specialized tasks required for a cell to operate effectively.

Animal Cell Structure

Animal Cell

 

In general, animal cells are smaller than plant cells. Its uneven form is another distinguishing feature. This results from the lack of a cell wall. However, because both plant and animal cells descended from eukaryotic cells, they share some cellular organelles. The following cell organelles make up a normal animal cell:

  1. Cell Membrane: a thin, lipid- and protein-rich membrane covering the cell that is semi-permeable. Its main function is to shield the cell from its environment. It also regulates how nutrients and other little things enter and leave the cell. Cell membranes are referred to as semi-permeable or selectively permeable membranes because of this.
  2. Nucleus: It is an organelle that houses a number of different suborganelles, including chromatins, nucleoli, and nucleosomes. DNA and other genetic materials are also present.
  3. Nuclear Membrane: Around the nucleus lies a double-membrane structure. The nuclear envelope is another name for it.
  4. Centrosome: It is a tiny organelle that can be found close to the nucleus. Its dense center is surrounded by radiating tubules. Microtubules are created at the centrosomes.
  5. Lysosome: They are spherical organelles with a membrane enclosing them, and inside are digestive enzymes that aid in digestion, excretion, and the process of cell renewal.
  6. Cytoplasm: a jelly-like substance that is made up of all the cell organelles and is protected by the cell membrane. Nucleoplasm is the name given to the substance located inside the nuclear membrane of a cell.
  7. Golgi Apparatus: A flat, layered, sac-like organelle that manufactures, stores, transports, and packs the particles throughout the cell, close to the nucleus.
  8. Mitochondrion: They are double-membraned organelles that are spherical or rod-shaped. They are a cell’s powerhouse since they are crucial in the energy release process.
  9. Ribosomes: These are tiny organelles that are the locations of protein synthesis and are composed of cytoplasmic granules rich in RNA.
  10. Endoplasmic Reticulum: This cellular organelle is made up of a nucleus-derived thin, spiraling network of membranous sacs.
  11. Vacuole: A cell’s internal organelle with a membrane that helps the cell keep its shape and store things like food, water, waste, and other things.
  12. Nucleopore: The passage of nucleic acids and proteins through the nuclear membrane is facilitated by these microscopic perforations in the membrane.

Animal Cell Types

Animal cells come in many different varieties, each with a purpose-specific function. The most typical animal cell types are:

Type of Cell

 

  1. Skin Cells: Any of the four major cell types that make up the epidermis may be referred to as “skin cells.” These are the Langerhans cells, Merkel cells, keratinocytes, and melanocytes. The general structure and function of the skin are influenced by the specific functions played by each type of skin cell.
  2. Muscle Cells: Since cardiac muscle cells and smooth muscle cells are both tiny cells, a muscle cell is also referred to as a myocyte.
  3. Blood Cells: A blood cell, also known as a hematopoietic cell, is a type of cell that is mostly present in the blood and is created during hematopoiesis.
  4. Nerve Cells: a particular kind of cell that relays information from the body to the brain and back to the body. A modest electrical current is used to transmit the messages. also known as a neuron.
  5. Fat Cells: Adipose tissue is mostly made up of fat cells, which are adept at storing energy as fat. 

FAQs on Animal Cells

Question 1: What is an animal cell?

Answer: 

Animal tissues only contain a certain sort of cell known as an animal cell. It is distinguished by having cell organelles that are encapsulated inside the cell membrane but without a cell wall.

Question 2: Identify the cell organelle that houses the cell’s genetic makeup.

Answer:

Nucleus- contain all the genetic information of the cell

Question 3: Which cellular organelle produces the energy needed for cellular activities?

Answer:

Mitochondria-it produce ATP which is the energy currency of the cell, due to this mitochondria are also known as the Powerhouse of the cell

Question 4: Identify the two-layered membrane that encases the nucleus.

Answer:

Nuclear envelope

Question 5: What are fat cells?

Answer:

Adipose tissue is mostly made up of fat cells, which are adept at storing energy as fat.

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