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Anatomy of the Brain

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The cerebrum is an organ that controls thought, memory, feeling, contact, coordinated movements, vision, breathing, temperature, hunger, and each cycle that manages our body. Together, the mind and spinal line that reaches out from it make up the focal sensory system. The mind sends and gets compound and electrical signs all through the body. Various signs control various cycles, and your mind deciphers each.

Human Brain

  • It works like a PC to deal with different data that it gets as signs from the other tactile organs in the body and sends messages back to the body. 
  • While the human cerebrum is similar as far as construction when contrasted with different vertebrates, it is bigger as far as body size and better created.
  • The cerebrum is situated inside the head. Noggin is the hard covering that safeguards the cerebrum from outer injury.
  • The human cerebrum comprises two kinds of tissues, dark and white matter. While dark matter makes up the majority of the cerebrum with different kinds of cells, white matter is made of axons that are answerable for interfacing the different dim matter regions of the mind with one another.
  • Gauging between 1-1.5 kg, the human cerebrum is generally made of neurons. There are anyplace between 86 billion-100 billion neurons in the human mind. The focal sensory system is comprised of the mind and the spinal rope.

The human Brain is distinguishable in the front mind, the mid-cerebrum, and the rear cerebrum. The brain is differentiated into 3 parts- Forebrain, Midbrain, and Hindbrain




This alludes to a human cerebrum’s foremost part and controls different elements of the human body like temperature, multiplication, yearning, rest, and feelings. The forebrain incorporates different parts like:


  • The thalamus is a little construction, found right over the mind stem answerable for transferring tangible data from the receptors.
  • This limbic framework is fundamentally answerable for the arrangement of new recollections and putting away previous encounters.
  • It is likewise answerable for sending engine data for development and coordination. 


The nerve center is situated beneath the thalamus and is a little yet fundamental piece of the human mind. It is considered the essential region of the mind carrying out the accompanying roles: they are

  • It gets driving forces from different pieces of the body.
  • Controls the close-to-home remainder and mindset.
  • Controls the feeling of smell and taste.
  • Controls pulse, craving, pulse, and peristalsis.


It is made out of two cerebral sides of the equator that are consolidated by weighty, thick groups of fiber called the corpus callosum.

The cerebrum is additionally partitioned into four segments or curves:

  • Parietal curve – Help in developments, the impression of upgrades, and direction.
  • Cerebrum – It is related to grammatical forms, arranging, thinking, critical thinking, and developments.
  • Fleeting curve – This locale is connected with discernment and acknowledgment of memory, hearable upgrades, and discourse.
  • Occipital curve – It is connected with visual handling.

The cortex is incredibly tangled, because of which, it has a huge surface region. The cerebrum additionally incorporates:

  • Motor regions – This region is answerable for the activity of the willful muscles.
  • Affiliation regions – These regions coordinate the approaching tactile data. It likewise shapes an association among tactile and engine regions.
  • Tangible regions – To get the messages.

The cerebrum comprises two sorts of tissues: Gray matter and White matter.

  • Gray matter – chiefly comprises different kinds of cells, which make up the main part of the mind.
  • White matter – is basically made out of axons, which associate different dark matter regions of the cerebrum with one another.


This is the focal region of the human mind. Made out of three districts coordinate any cycle that is fundamental for endurance, which incorporates engine learning and relaxing. 


To the front, pons lies in the center section of the mind stem. One more relatively short piece of the mind stem situated in the back cranial fossa is the pons.

  • The plan of roughly 2.5 cm leans against the skull clivus, beneath the tentorium cere belli.
  • The metencephalon, which is an optional cerebrum vesicle created from the hindbrain , produces the pons.


  • The cerebellum is the second-biggest piece of the mind situated in the back region of the pons and the medulla. The cross-over gap and the tentorium cere belli separate the frontal cortex and the cerebellum.
  • The external surface of the cerebellum is the cortex; two halves of the globe the dark cortex on the external part and the white medulla inside make up the cerebellum.
  • The cerebellum likewise comprises of cerebellar cores, cerebellar peduncles, and the foremost and back curves.

      The cerebellum carries out significant roles like:

  • Move of data
  • Coordination of eye development
  • Feeling of balance
  • Controlling the willful developments of the body
  • Coordination of skeletal developments that are straightforwardly connected with the front and back curves

Medulla Oblongata 

The tightest and most caudal part of the mind stem is the medulla oblongata or medulla.

  • It is a pipe like design that stretches from the decussation of the wide pyramids to the sub-par pontine sulcus through the foramen magnum.
  • As the medulla in the back cranial fossa continues up it stops at the fourth ventricle second rate pontine sulcus (anteriorly) and medullary striae


 The midbrain is the focal piece of the mind stem. A tiny region comprises the:


  • Tegmentum is a district inside the brain stem. It is a mind-boggling structure with different parts, which is principally engaged with body developments, rest, excitement, consideration, and different vital reflexes.
  • It frames the stage for the midbrain and associates with the thalamus, cerebral cortex and the spinal rope.


  • The tectum is a little piece of the mind, explicitly the dorsal piece of the midbrain.
  • It gives an entry to the various neurons moving all through the frontal cortex.
  • It fills in as a hand-off community for the tactile data from the ears to the frontal cortex. It likewise controls the reflex developments of the head, eye, and neck muscles.

Human Brain Synapse 

The mind is made out of two sorts of cells for example nerve cells (neurons) and glial cells.

Glial cells 

  • Glial cells are answerable for nourishing the neurons. It helps for the security as well as underlying scaffolding to neurons. These are around 10-50 times more glial cells than the neurons.

Nerve cells (Neurons) 

  • Neurons differ in shape and size, but they all comprise the cell body, dendrites, and axons. The transmission of data is intervened by a hole called a neurotransmitter.
  • The neuron sends the data through the electrical and synthetic signs.
  • The synapse in the wake of crossing the neural connection fits into unique receptors on the getting nerve cell, which animates that cell to pass on the message.
  • Dendrites are the arms that assumes part as receiving wires getting messages from other nerve cells.

Location of Human Brain 

  • The brain is encased inside the skull, which gives front-facing, sidelong, and dorsal assurance.
  • The skull comprises 22 bones, 14 of which structure the facial bones, and the excess 8 structure the cranial bones. Physically, the mind is held inside the head and is encircled by the cerebrospinal liquid.
  • The essential capability of the CSF is to go about as a support for the mind, padding mechanical shocks and hosing minor shocks. It additionally gives fundamental immunological assurance to the cerebrum.
  • Consistently, the specific ependymal cells produce around 500mL of cerebrospinal liquid.
  • The Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) is a liquid that circles inside the skull and spinal line, occupying empty spaces on the outer layer of the mind.

Conceptual Question

Question 1: Explain the brain stem? 


  • The distal piece of the mind that comprises of the midbrain, pons, and medulla oblongata is the cerebrum stem (cerebrum stem).
  • Every one of the three sections has a specific construction and element of its own.It favours the correspondence between the frontal cortex, cerebellum, and the spinal rope.
  • Together, they help to screen breathing, pulse, circulatory strain, and different other principal capabilities. At its proximal end, the brain stem is more extensive and decreases towards the distal end.

Question 2: What are the main components of the human brain? 


The mind has three fundamental parts: the frontal cortex, cerebellum and brain stem.

  • Brain stem – goes about as a transfer place interfacing the frontal cortex and cerebellum to the spinal rope.
  • Cerebellum –  is situated under the frontal cortex. Its capability is to facilitate muscle developments, keep up with stance, and equilibrium.
  • Frontal cortex – is the biggest piece of the cerebrum and is made out of both ways sides of the equator.

Question 3: Make sense of how the skull safeguards the human cerebrum?


The cerebrum is encased inside the skull, where it is suspended in a layer of liquid called the cerebrospinal liquid . Moreover, it likewise serves minor immunological jobs and gives the fundamental supplements expected by the cerebrum.

Question 4: Explain the memory of the human brain? 


Memory is a perplexing cycle that incorporates three stages: encoding (concluding what data is significant), putting away, and reviewing. Various region of the mind are engaged with various sorts of memory. The prefrontal cortex holds late occasions momentarily in momentary memory. The hippocampus is answerable for encoding long-haul memory.

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Last Updated : 17 Oct, 2022
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