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Ammonia Formula – Structure, Properties, Uses, Sample Questions

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  • Last Updated : 20 May, 2022
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Ammonia is a gaseous chemical compound that is a poisonous gas with a pungent odor. Generally, Ammonia was produced by the anaerobic decay of plant and animal matter. Ammonia is highly soluble in water. The solubility of ammonia depends upon its temperature. The Ammonia in water is known as ammonium hydroxide. Ammonia consists of Nitrogen and Hydrogen atoms. Based on the number of hydrogen atoms The name of the compound will depend, If 2 Hydrogen atoms are bonded to Nitrogen then it is Amine or Amino (NH2). If 3 hydrogens are bonded to nitrogen then it is Ammonia (NH3). If 4 hydrogens are bonded to nitrogen then it is called Ammonium (NH4).

Ammonia Formula 

The chemical formula for ammonia is NH3. It is a chemical compound that is a poisonous gas with a pungent odor. Ammonia consists of 1 Nitrogen and 3 Hydrogen atoms. 3 Hydrogens are directly linked to Nitrogen. Ammonia undergoes some reactions on its own. They are molecular autoionization, combustion, etc. Ammonia is used as a fertilizer, used as a fuel for standard engines, and used as a building block material for the synthesis of pharmaceutical products. Another name for ammonia is Azane.

Structure of Ammonia

Ammonia is a chemical compound consisting of 1 nitrogen and 3 hydrogen atoms. The chemical formula of ammonia is NH3. The hydrogen atom is directly bonded to nitrogen.

 

Physical Properties of Ammonia

  • Ammonia is a colorless gas with a strong and pungent odor.
  • The density of Ammonia is 0.86 kg/m3.
  • The Melting point of Ammonia is -77.73°C (or) -107.91°F.
  • The Boiling point of Ammonia is -33.34°C (or) -28.01°F.
  • The solubility of ammonia in water is 47% w/w at 0°C.
  • Ammonia is easily soluble in Chloroform, Ethanol, Methanol, and Ether.
  • The Molar mass of Ammonia is 17.031 g/mol.

Chemical Properties of Ammonia

  • Ammonia undergoes molecular autoionization to form base and conjugate.

2NH3 ⇢ NH4+ + NH2

  • Ammonia undergoes combustion and forms Nitrogen and water.

4 NH3 + 3 O2 ⇢ 2 N2 + 6 H2O
4 NH3 + 5 O2 ⇢ 4 NO + 6 H2O
2 NO + O2 ⇢  2 NO2

  • Concentrated Ammonia reacts with concentrated Hydrochloric acid and forms clouds of Ammonia chloride

NH3 + HCl ⇢ NH4Cl

  • Liquid Ammonia reacts with lithium and forms Lithium amide.

2 NH3 + 2 Li ⇢ 2 LiNH2 + H2 

Uses of Ammonia

  • Ammonia is used as a non-aqueous ionizing solvent.
  • Ammonia is used as a Fertilizer.
  • Ammonia is used as fuel in standard engines.
  • Ammonia is used as a building block material for the synthesis of pharmaceutical products.
  • Ammonia is used in many commercial cleaning products.
  • Ammonia is used in household products.
  • Ammonia is used for metal treatment
  • Ammonia is used as petroleum.

Sample Questions

Question 1: How do we get Ammonia?

Answer:

The production of ammonia is a very simple and easy process. It is produced from air and water. Ammonia is a part of the nitrogen cycle, produced naturally from the decomposition of plants, and animals’ organic matter. A typical modern method of ammonia production is the conversion of natural gas or liquid petroleum or liquid naphtha into gaseous hydrogen. From this separate the hydrogen by steam forms from hydrocarbons. Then combine this hydrogen with nitrogen. This process is called the Haber Bosch process.

Question 2: Is ammonia acidic or basic?

Answer:

Ammonia is a weak base. The ammonia does not contain any hydroxide ions on its own, but it reacts with water to form ammonium ions and hydroxide ions. so, the ammonia is a weak base.

Question 3: How do you test ammonia in the mixture?

Answer:

The ammonium can be identified by adding dilute sodium hydroxide solution on gentle heating. If ammonia is present it will release pungent odor gases. this gas is ammonia gas. it was confirmed by testing with red litmus paper. The red litmus paper converts into blue if ammonia is present in that gas.

Question 4: What happens when ammonia bubbles in water?

Answer:

Ammonia acts as a base, reacts with water, and forms ammonium ions and hydroxide ions. Hydroxide ions act as a base and ammonium ions act as a weak acid in an aqueous solution. Because when ammonium ions react with water they will dissociate into Hydrogen and ammonia. 

Question 5: How is ammonia collected?

Answer:

The ammonia is collected by the downward displacement of air. The ammonia gas is lighter than natural gas. Ammonia contains Nitrogen and Hydrogen atoms. The chemical formula of ammonia is NH3.

Question 6: What is liquor ammonia?

Answer:

The ammonia in water as an aqueous solution is called liquor ammonia. The liquor ammonia is used as a liquid chemical in various pharmaceutical and rubber industries. It is also known as ammonium hydroxide, ammonium water, aqua ammonia, aqueous ammonia, and solution of ammonia in water.

NH3 + H2O ⇢ NH4OH

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