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Amino Acid Formula

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  • Last Updated : 15 Sep, 2022
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It is an organic compound that contains the elements carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and oxygen. Some of the other elements can also be found in the side chains of certain amino acids. The amine and carboxylic acid groups are both bonded to the first (alpha-) carbon atom in amino acids.

“Amino acids are organic compounds that combine to produce proteins; hence, they are referred to as protein components”

 These biomolecules are involved in various biological and chemical functions in the human body and are necessary ingredients for human growth and development. There are around 300 amino acids that occurred in nature.”

Chemical Formula of Amino Acid

R-CH(NH2)-COOH is the chemical formula of amino acids.

Structure of Amino Acid

Amino Acid structure

Amino Acid structure

Each amino acid molecule has a central carbon (C) atom (α-carbon) that is near to both an amino and a carboxyl group. In general, a hydrogen atom and the R group satisfy the remaining two-carbon bonds. Furthermore, amino acids differ from one another due to the specific chemical structure of the R group. 

Properties of Amino acid

  • Their melting and boiling points are extremely high.
  • Amino acids are white, crystalline solids.
  • Few amino acids have a sweet, tasteless, or bitter flavour.
  • The majority of amino acids are soluble in water but insoluble in organic solvents.

Sources of Amino Acid

Amino acids are essential for a variety of biological and chemical functions in our bodies, including tissue building and repair, enzyme synthesis and activity, food digestion, molecule transportation, and so on. Only a few amino acids can be synthesised by our bodies, and the remainder, known as essential amino acids, must be obtained from protein-rich meals in our daily diet.

Plant-based rich foods in amino acids include broccoli, beans, beetroot, pumpkin, cabbage, almonds, dry fruits, chia seeds, oats, peas, carrots, cucumber, green leafy vegetables, onions, soybeans, whole grain, peanuts, legumes, lentils, and so on. Apples, bananas, berries, figs, grapes, melons, oranges, papaya, pineapple, and pomegranates are rich in amino acids. Dairy products, eggs, fish, poultry, beef, and pork are examples of other animal products.

Essential Amino acids

Our bodies can easily synthesise a few of the 20 amino acids on their own, which are known as non-essential amino acids. Alanine, asparagine, arginine, aspartic acid, glutamic acid, cysteine, glutamine, proline, glycine, serine, and tyrosine are one of them.

Functions Of Essential Amino Acids

  • Phenylalanine aids in the maintenance of a healthy nervous system and the enhancement of memory ability.
  • Valine is a key component in increasing muscle development.
  • Threonine assists in the promotion of immune system functioning.
  • Tryptophan is essential for the production of vitamin B3 and serotonin hormones. This serotonin hormone is essential for appetite stability, sleep regulation, and mood-boosting.
  • Isoleucine is essential for the synthesis of haemoglobin, activating the pancreas to produce insulin, and transporting oxygen from the lungs to the various parts of the body.
  • Methionine is used in the treatment of kidney stones, the maintenance of healthy skin, and the control of pathogenic bacteria.

Non-Essential Amino Acids

Nine more amino acids are essential as our bodies cannot synthesise them. Isoleucine, histidine, lysine, leucine, phenylalanine, tryptophan, methionine, threonine, and valine are examples of essential amino acids.

Functions Of Non-Essential Amino Acids

  • Alanine works by detoxifying poisons from our bodies and producing glucose and other amino acids.
  • Cysteine functions as an antioxidant and provides our bodies with resistance; it is also required for the production of collagen.
  • It has an impact on the texture and elasticity of the skin.
  • Glutamine promotes healthy brain function and is required for the synthesis of nucleic acids (DNA and RNA).
  • Glycine is essential for maintaining healthy cell growth and function, as well as for wound healing.
  • It acts as a neurotransmitter. Glutamic acid functions as a neurotransmitter and is primarily involved in the formation and functioning of the human brain.
  • Arginine promotes protein and hormone synthesis, kidney cleansing, wound healing, and immune system function.

List of Amino Acids

Amino Acids

Chemical Formula

Alanine

C3H7NO2

Aspartic Acid

C4H7NO4

Asparagine 

C4H8N2O3

Arginine

C6H14N4O2

Cytosine

C4H5N3O

Cysteine

C3H7NO2S

Glycine

C2H5NO2

Glutamine

C5H10N2O3

Histidine

C6H9N3O2

Isoleucine

C6H13NO2

Uses Of Amino Acid

  • The amino acid has several industrial uses. Their primary application is as an addition to animal feed. 
  • It is important because many of these bulk components feed, such as soybeans, have low levels or lack some of the key amino acids: lysine, methionine, threonine, and tryptophan, which are essential in the production of these feeds.
  • In the food sector, glutamic acid is utilised as a flavour enhancer, and aspartame is used as a low-calorie artificial sweetener.
  • Its chelating capacity is utilized in agricultural fertilisers to help in the delivery of minerals to plants in order to rectify mineral deficiencies.
  • It is used in the pharmaceutical industry to treat depression.

FAQs On Amino Acid Formula

Question 1: Why are amino acids referred to as amphoteric?

Answer:

Amino acids are both acidic and basic in nature. Because of this, they are amphoteric. The pH of the solution determines the predominant form of the amino acid.

Question 2: What are the health hazards of amino acids?

Answer:

It is very corrosive to the respiratory system and the skin. It is also harmful if swallowed. In addition, it may cause burns in the mouth, throat, and stomach.

Question 3: Define Valine.

Answer:

Valine is an essential amino acid that is required for protein synthesis. Valine is an alpha-amino acid, which means it has an alpha-amino group (which is protonated -NH3+ under biological conditions), an alpha-carboxylic acid group (which is deprotonated -COO- under biological conditions), and an isopropyl group on the side chain. As a result, it is classified as a non-polar aliphatic amino acid.

Question 4: When were amino acids have been discovered?

Answer:

In 1806 the amino acid was discovered. Two French chemists called Pierre Jean Robiquet and Louis-Nicolas Vauquelin identified the first amino acid, asparagine, in asparagus. Glycine was later discovered in gelatin, cysteine in urinary stones, and leucine in muscle and wool.

Question 5: What is the name of the amino acid bond?

Answer:

Multiple amino acids within a protein are linked together by peptide bonds, forming a prolonged chain. A biological process removes a water molecule as it connects the amino group of one amino acid to the carboxyl group of a nearby amino acid to form peptide bonds.


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