Agriculture and Food Security
Food security entails ensuring that food is available, accessible, and affordable to all people at all times. When there is difficulty with food crop production or distribution, disadvantaged households are more prone to food insecurity. When food security is threatened, it is dependent on the Public Distribution System (PDS) and government attention and intervention.
Food security is a well-known topic in today’s world. Food security is often defined as the development of policies to improve food storage and distribution. FAO began focusing on food access for all in 1983. In its statement, it stated that “every individual should have access to the fundamental food items that they require for a better lifestyle.”
Food is as necessary for survival as oxygen is for breathing. But food security entails more than just eating two square meals a day. The dimensions of food security are as follows:
- The presence of food in a community is defined as availability. This is directly related to the efficiency of food production and import. Food availability is not possible if sufficient resources are not accessible; for example, if there is a lack of water and irrigation, food production would be impossible.
- Food access simply refers to any individual’s ability to obtain food. Every individual who requires a nutritious diet will be able to meet his needs if he has access to food. True food accessibility will occur when all members of society, including the impoverished, have access to it. Food accessibility can be influenced by social and political factors.
- Affordability indicates that a person has enough money to buy enough food that is safe and nutritious to suit one’s dietary demands.
- Food is not included in the definitions of food security and usage. It does, however, include nutritional meals. Every individual’s food should be of high quality. The most crucial aspect of food is that it is nutritious enough for everyone to obtain enough nutrients from it.
The economic feature of food security is that it is heavily dependent on an individual’s income. A person whose salary meets all of his day-to-day needs without interruption will naturally have greater access to food and security than others who struggle to make ends meet.
Agriculture and Food Security
Because a country’s agricultural practices are so important to food security, agricultural practices must be prioritized. As a result, the Agriculture and Food Security Program exist to assist farmers with agricultural productivity. This is one of the Food Security programmes that exist to assist agricultural advancements by providing farmers all around the world with novel methods of production.
Because malnutrition is one of the most serious consequences of societal economic inequality, this program, part of the Global Food Security practice, attempts to improve the nutrition of those who are affected. As a result, the principal food security goal it pursues is to assist small farmers around the world by providing them with more favorable agricultural production methods that will improve their nutrition and income.
The Indian government has also initiated a similar scheme to increase food security for farmers in India. It is known as the National Food Security Mission, and it was established in 2007. This program’s goal and aim are comparable to those of agriculture and food security.
Factors affecting Food Security
- Climate Change and Global Warming
- Scarcity of land for farming
- Technological barriers
- Inadequate supply of water for irrigation
As a result of these causes, food security suffers in a number of nations, including India, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Bangladesh, and others. Several interruptions occur as a result of these circumstances. Food insecurity is one such disturbance.
Food insecurity, as the term implies, is a disruption in people’s food and health security. Food insecurity develops when people’s eating habits and food intake have negative consequences. As previously noted, food security among individuals is mostly determined by their economic circumstances. Similarly, one of the primary reasons of food insecurity among people is tied to their socioeconomic status.
The primary economic reason of food insecurity is the feature of unemployment among societies. Several people are unable to afford meals for survival due to a lack of money and other resources. This is especially visible in emerging countries such as India, where a sizable portion of the population lives in poverty. They are frequently malnourished and lead disordered lives as a result of their lack of food security. This brings us to the consequences of people’s food insecurity.
Question 1: Describe any one aspect of early subsistence agriculture.
Primitive subsistence agriculture is performed on tiny plots of land using primitive implements such as hoes, daos, and digging sticks, as well as family/community labour.
Question 2: What is the most distinguishing feature of commercial farming?
Higher doses of contemporary inputs, such as HYV seeds, chemical fertilizers, insecticides, and pesticides, are used to increase productivity.
Question 3: Define plantation crop?
A single crop is farmed on a big scale in a plantation crop. Plantations cover enormous areas of land with capital-intensive inputs and the assistance of migrant labourers.
Question 4: What techniques did the government use to enhance Indian agriculture in the 1960s and 1970s?
To improve the lot of Indian agriculture, the Green Revolution (based on package technology) and the White Revolution (Operation Flood) were launched.
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