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Acidic, Basic and Neutral Salts

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A salt is crystallized by the reaction between an acid and a base, accordingly, we should anticipate that the salt solution in water is neutral to the acid test. Although aqueous solutions of numerous mariners are neutral (pH of 7), some salts deliver acidic or introductory results (alkaline solutions) when dematerialized in water.  

Salt Solution pH Nature
Sodium Chloride Solution 7 Neutral
Ammonium  Chloride Solution 6 Acidic
Sodium Carbonate Solution 9 Basic

An aqueous solution of sodium chloride is neutral, an aqueous solution of ammonium chloride is acidulous, whereas an aqueous solution of sodium carbonate is alkaline in nature (or alkaline in nature). On the foundation of hydrolysis of salts, the acidic nature and fundamental nature of solutions of some salts can be demystified

Salts of Strong acids and Strong bases give Neutral solutions 

Let us grasp the exemplification of sodium chloride to extrapolate this point. Sodium chloride salt (NaCl) is crystallized from a strong acid hydrochloric acid (HCl) and a strong base sodium hydroxide (NaOH). Since sodium chloride is formed from a strong acid and a strong base, thus, an aqueous solution of sodium chloride is neutral. It doesn’t hold any act on the acid test. 

Another instance of a salt that gives a neutral solution is potassium sulphate (K2SO4) It’s solidified from a strong acid sulphuric acid (H2SO4) and a strong base potassium hydroxide (KOH)  

Salts of Strong acids and weak bases give acidic solutions 

Let us take the exemplification of ammonium chloride. Ammonium chloride (NH4Cl) is the salt of a strong acid hydrochloric acid (HCI), and a weak base ammonium hydroxide (NH4OH), so an aqueous solution of ammonium chloride is acidulous in nature. This can be demystified as follows.  

When ammonium chloride is dissolved in water, it gets hydrolyzed to some extent to form ammonium hydroxide and hydrochloric acid :

NH4Cl (s) + H₂O (l)   ⭢   NH4OH(aq)  +  HCI (aq) 

where, Ammonium hydroxide (NH4OH) is a Strong acid and Hydrochloric acid (HCI) is a Weak base.

Hydrochloric acid is a strong acid that is completely ionized and gives a large quantum of hydrogen ions (H(aq)). On the other hand, ammonium hydroxide is a weak base that is only slightly ionized and gives a small quantum of hydroxide ions (OH(aq)). Since ammonium chloride result contains additional hydrogen ions than hydroxide ions, it’s acidic in nature. It turns blue acid test red. Another illustration of a salt that gives an acidic solution is ammonium sulphate (NH4)2SO4. It is formed from a strong acid sulphuric acid (H₂SO4) and a weak base ammonium hydroxide (NH4OH).

Salts of Weak acids and Strong bases give Introductory solutions

Let us clasp the exemplification of sodium carbonate. Sodium carbonate (Na ₂CO3) is the salt of weak acid carbonic acid (H ₂ CO3) and a strong base sodium hydroxide (NaOH), so an aqueous solution of sodium carbonate will be elementary in nature (or alkaline in nature). This can be explicated as follows.  

When sodium carbonate is dematerialized in water, it gets hydrolyzed to some extent and forms sodium hydroxide and carbonic acid  

Na2CO3 (s) + 2H2O (l)   ⭢   2NaOH (aq) + H2CO3 (aq)

where, Sodium Hydroxide (NaOH) is a Strong base and Carbonic acid (H2CO3) is a weak acid.

Sodium hydroxide is a strong base that is completely ionized and gives a large quantum of hydroxide ions (OH (aq)). On the other hand, carbonic acid is a weak acid that is exclusively hardly ionized and hence gives a fragile quantum of hydrogen ions (H+(aq)). Since the sodium carbonate solution contains further d hydroxide ions than hydrogen ions, it’s basic in nature (or alkaline in nature). It turns red acid test to blue Another exemplification of a salt that gives a basic solution (or alkaline solution) is sodium acetate (CH3COONa). It’s crystallized from a weak acid acetic acid (CH3COOH), also a strong base sodium hydroxide (NaOH).  

Sample Questions

Question 1: When a solution is added to the vanilla extract, also the discriminating aroma of vanilla can not be detected. State whether the given away solution is an acid or a base.  

Answer:

When Hydrochloric acid reacts with an functional metal (like zinc), we observe that gas brimmed bubbles are solidified on the face of the metal Pass the gas formed through cleanser solution. Also, bring around a burning candle near the gas filed cleaner bubble if the gas present in bubble streamlets with a ‘pop’ sound, also its hydrogen gas.

Question 2: How will you test for the gas which is disencumbered when hydrochloric acid reacts with a functional metal?  

Answer:

Carbon dioxide (CO₂) gas is elaborated during the reaction. We transfer this gas through lime water which tums milky because of the CO₂ dissolution through it.  

Question 3: What’s an olfactory indicator? Name two olfactory pointers. What’s the aftereffect of adjoining sodium hydroxide solution to these olfactory pointers?  

Answer:

Those essentialities whose aroma (or odour) fluctuations in acidic or basic solutions are called olfactory pointers Onion and vanilla excerpts are olfactory pointers When a basic solution like sodium hydroxide result is added to a cloth strip acted with onions (or onion excerpt), also the onion smell can not be detected.  

Question 4: Which gas is generally liberated when an acid reacts with an essence? How will you test for the presence of this gas?  

Answer: 

Hydrogen gas is liberated when an acid reacts with a metal. When reaction between an acid and a metal occurs, We observe the arrangement of gas bubbles. When these gas bubbles are handed over through cleaner(soup) solution, gas filled cleaner bubbles rise into the air. When a burning candle is brought near a gas- filled cleaner bubble, the gas present in the soap-bubble becks with a ‘pop’ sound. Only hydrogen gas burns fashioning a ‘pop’ sound. This shows that hydrogen gas is evolved in the process.  

Question 5: While diluting an acid, why is it committed that the acid should be tacked to water and not water to the acid?  

Answer: 

When a concentrated acid is adjoined to water for prepping a dilute acid, also the heat is evolved gradationally and fluently soaked by the bulky quantum of water (to which the acid is being subjoined) still if water is added to concentrate.  

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Last Updated : 03 Mar, 2022
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